Skip to main content

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Oil Content and Yield Components as Affected by Co-inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Glomus intraradices at Various N and P Levels in a Dry Climate

Abstract

With respect to the significance of medicinal plants, testing methods, which may enhance their performance, can be important agriculturally and economically as well as from healthy points of view. Hence, grain oil content and yield components of the medicinal plant, safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., cultivar IL-111), were evaluated in a field experiment. Treatments including co-inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and the Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus intraradices at different rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilization including F0: control, F1: N50 + P25, F2 = N100 + P50, and F3 = N150 + P75 kg ha−1 were tested. The experiment was conducted in the spring of 2006 as a factorial on the basis of a completely randomized block design in three replicates. Grain oil content and yield components were determined. A. chroococcum increased plant N content. The two- (fungi and fertilization) and three-way (bacteria, fungi, and fertilization) interactions significantly affected grain oil content and weight of 1,000 grain, respectively. While chemical fertilization significantly decreased oil percentage, the bacterium and the fungus significantly increased oil percentage. However, for the oil content the combination of microbes with chemical fertilization resulted in the highest oil content. The effective co-inoculation of safflower with A. chroococcum and G. intraradices by increasing oil content and yield components suggests the effectiveness of this biological method for safflower production as well as a favorite partial replacement for N and P fertilization. The effects of biological fertilization on the enhancement of seed nutritional values may be more pronounced than chemical fertilization.

Keywords

  • Azotobacter chroococcum
  • Glomus intraradices
  • Oil content
  • N and P fertilizer
  • Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0721-2_9
  • Chapter length: 12 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-1-4939-0721-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  • Basalma D, Uranbey S, Mirici S, Kolsarici Ö (2008) TDZ x IBA induced shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaves and in vitro multiplication in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Afric J Biotechnol 7:960–966

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Behl RK, Sharma H, Kumar V, Singh KP (2003) Effect of dual inoculation of mycorrhiza and Azotobacter on above flag leaf characters in wheat. Arch Agron Soil Sci 49:25–31

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bryla DR, Duniway JM (1997) Water uptake by safflower and wheat roots infected with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi. New Phytol 136:591

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Diaz FA, Garza I, Ortegon AS (2006) Biofertilization of Safflower (Carthamus tintorius) under limited humidity conditions. Rev Fitotec Mex 29:175–180

    Google Scholar 

  • Elfadl E, Reinbrecht C, Claupein W (2010) Evaluation of phenotypic variation in a worldwide germplasm collection of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) grown under organic farming conditions in Germany. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:155–170

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Foruzaun K (1999) Safflower. Oil Grain Company, Persian, p 151

    Google Scholar 

  • Gecgel U, Demirci M, Esendal E, Tasan M (2007) Fatty acid composition of the oil from developing seeds of different varieties of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). J Am Oil Chem Soc 84:47–54

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gunasekera CP, Martin LD, Siddique KHM, Walton GH (2006) Genotype by environment interactions of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) in Mediterranean-type environments II. Oil and protein concentrations in seed. Eur J Agron 25:3–21

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Khajeh Pour MR (1991) Production of industrial crops. Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, Persian, p 251

    Google Scholar 

  • Lal L (2000) Phosphatic biofertilizer. Agrotech Publishing Academy, India, p 224

    Google Scholar 

  • Marschner H (1995) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Li H, Dong Y, Sun Y, Zhu E, Yang J, Liu X, Xue P, Xiao Y, Yang S, Wu J, Li X (2010) Investigation of the microRNAs in safflower seed, leaf, and petal by high-throughput sequencing. Planta 233:611–619

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ, Torabi H (2007) Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on corn (Zea mays L.) growth. Soil Biol Biochem 39:2014–2026

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M, Bahrami HA, Rejali F, Malakouti MJ (2008) Using arbuscular mycorrhiza to reduce the stressful effects of soil compaction on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth. Soil Biol Biochem 40:1197–1206

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M, Rejali F, Bahrami HA, Malakouti MJ (2009a) Effects of soil compaction and arbuscular mycorrhiza on corn (Zea mays L.) nutrient uptake. Soil Till Res 103:282–290

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M, Rejali F, Bahrami HA, Malakouti MJ (2009b) Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza, soil sterilization, and soil compaction on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nutrients uptake. Soil Till Res 104:48–55

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M (2010a) Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to plant growth under different types of soil stresses. Plant Biol 12:563–569

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M (2010b) Biological Fertilization. In: Méndez-Vilas A (ed.) Current research, technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology. Microbiology Book Series—2010 Edition, Spain

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M (2011a) Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:917–930

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M (2011b) Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen uptake. Arch Microbiol 193:77–81

    Google Scholar 

  • Mirzakhani M, Ardakani MR, Aeene Band A, Shirani Rad AH, Rejali F (2009) Effects of dual inoculation of azotobacter and mycorrhiza with nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer rates on grain yield and some of characteristics of spring safflower. Internat J Environ Sci Engin 1:39–43

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M (2013a) Soil microbes and the availability of soil nutrients. Acta Physiol Plant 35:3075–3084

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M (2013b) Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. J Plant Nutr (in press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M. et al (2013a). Plant hormones as signals in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Crit Rev Biotechnol (in press)

    Google Scholar 

  • Miransari M et al (2013b) Improving soybean (Glycine max L.) N2-fixation under stress. J Plant Growth Regul 32:909–921

    Google Scholar 

  • Omidi H, Tahmasebi Z, Naghdi-Badi HA, Torabi H, Miransari M (2010) Fatty acid composition of canola (Brassica napus. L), as affected by agronomical, genotypic and environmental parameters. Comp Ren Biol 333:248–254

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rahamatalla AB, Babiker EE, Krishna AG, El Tinay AH (2001) Changes in fatty acids composition during seed growth and physiocochemical characterstics of oil extracted from four safflower cultivars. Plant Food Human Nutr 56:385–395

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Samanci B, Ozkaynak E (2003) Effect of planting date on seed yield, oil content and fatty acid composition of the safflower cultivars grown in the mediterranean region of Turkey. J Agron Crop Sci 189:359–360

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Seddiqui ZA, Mahmood I (2001) Effect of rhizobacteria and root symbionts on the reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and growth of chickpea. Bioresource Technol. 79:41–45

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma AK, Johri BN (eds) (2002) Arbuscular mycorrhizae, interaction in plants, rhizosphere and soils. Oxford and IBH Publishing, New Delhi, p 308

    Google Scholar 

  • Shenoy VV, Kalagudi GM (2005) Enhancing plant phosphorus use efficiency for sustainable cropping. Biotechnol Adv 23:501–513

    PubMed  CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Smith SE, Read DJ (1997) Mycorrhizal symbiosis. Academic Press, London, pp 126–160

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics: a biometrical approach. 2nd (edn) McGraw-Hill Book Company

    Google Scholar 

  • Thippeswamy M, Chandraobulreddy P, Sinilal B, Kumar M (2010) Proline accumulation and the expression of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase in two safflower cultivars. Biol Plant 54:386–390

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Velasco L, Fernandez-Martinez J (2001) Breeding for oil quality in safflower. In: Bergman JW, Mundel HH (eds) Proceedings of the 5th international safflower conference. Williston, North Dakota and Sidney, Montana, USA, pp 133–137

    Google Scholar 

  • Wu ZH, Cao ZG, Li KC, Cheung MH, Wong SC (2005) Effects of biofertilizer containing N-fixer, P and K solubilizers and AM fungi on maize growth: a greenhouse trial. Geoderma 125:155–166

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zabihi HR, Savaghebi GR, Khavazi K, Ganjali A, Miransari M (2011) Pseudomonas bacteria and phosphorous fertilization, affecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and P uptake under greenhouse and field conditions. Acta Physiol Plant 33:145–152

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohammad Miransari .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Mirzakhani, M., Ardakani, M.R., Rejali, F., Rad, A.H.S., Miransari, M. (2014). Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Oil Content and Yield Components as Affected by Co-inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum and Glomus intraradices at Various N and P Levels in a Dry Climate. In: Miransari, M. (eds) Use of Microbes for the Alleviation of Soil Stresses. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0721-2_9

Download citation