Oxidative Stress in Kawasaki Disease

Chapter
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

There exists a close association between inflammation and oxidative stress. Further, oxidative stress plays a role in the pathology of inflammation-based Kawasaki disease. An excessive in vivo production of reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress load, which triggers a never-ending vicious spiral of inflammatory reactions and reactive oxygen metabolites. This forms the basis for acute stage Kawasaki disease. Kawasaki disease involves multiple intricately connected inflammatory reactions activated via a cytokine cascade. Features of Kawasaki disease suggest an infectious cause; however, this has not been clarified yet.

Although inflammation in the blood vessels and oxidative stress can be rapidly controlled by acute medical treatment, both conditions may persist and manifest in many forms over long periods. This has been identified in recent years as a problem in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease. Further, both vascular inflammation and oxidative stress constantly inflict damage to the blood vessels, and are widely speculated to increase the risk of arteriosclerosis. The current discussion focuses on whether these features have implications in Kawasaki disease.

Keywords

Permeability Obesity Carbohydrate Superoxide Vasculitis 

Abbreviations

BAP

Biological antioxidant potential

CRP

C-reactive protein

EDRF

Endothelium-derived relaxing factor

eNOS

Endothelial NO synthase

%FMD

Endothelium-dependent vasodilation response

IL-6

Interleukin-6

iNOS

Inducible NO synthase

IVIG

Intravenous immunoglobulin

KD

Kawasaki disease

NADH/NADPH

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide/nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

NE

Neutrophil elastase

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa B

NO

Nitric oxide

NOx

Nitrogen oxides

ROM

Reactive oxygen metabolites

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

TAT

Thrombin-antithrombin complex

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Cardiology and Nephrology, Graduate School of Medical ScienceKyoto Prefectural University of MedicineKyotoJapan

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