Advertisement

Rodent Models of Genetic Contributions to Motivation to Abuse Alcohol

  • John C. Crabbe
Chapter
Part of the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation book series (NSM, volume 61)

Abstract

The distinction between alcohol use (normative) and abuse (unfortunately common) implies dysregulation of motivation directed toward the drug. Genetic contributions to abuse risk are mediated through personality differences, other predispositions to drink excessively, and differences in sensitivity to the acute and chronic consequences of the drug. How to assess motivation in laboratory animals is not straightforward, but risk factors for and consequences of alcohol abuse can be modeled with reasonable fidelity in laboratory rodents. Remarkably, few rodent studies focus on the genetic contributions to alcohol’s reinforcing value: Almost all examine preferential drinking of unflavored alcohol over water. Such studies will likely never avoid the confounding role of taste preferences and most often yield intake levels insufficient to yield a pharmacologically significant blood alcohol level. Genotypes that avoid alcohol probably do so based on preingestive sensory cues; however, postingestive consequences are also important. Thus, the quest for improved measures of reinforcing value continues. We have genetic differences aplenty, but still lack evidence that any genotype will readily self-administer alcohol to the devastating extent that many alcoholics will. Encouraging results that are emerging include improved behavioral methods for elevating alcohol intake and inferring alcohol reinforcement, as well as new genetic animal models. Several ingenious assays to index alcohol’s motivational effects have been used extensively. Alcoholic drinking that attempts to prevent or to alleviate withdrawal symptoms has been modeled. Another characteristic of alcoholic drinking is its persistence despite abundant evidence to the drinker of the damaging effects of the excessive drinking on work, relationships, and/or health. Modeling such persistence in rodents has been uncommon to date. New genetic animal models include lines of mice selectively bred for chronic high drinking and others bred for high binge-like drinking. We have a much more clear idea now about some important experiments remaining to be performed.

Keywords

Quantitative Trait Locus Conditioned Place Preference Inbred Strain Taste Aversion Progressive Ratio Schedule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Preparation of this chapter was supported by the US Department of Veteran’s Affairs, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health (Grants AA10760, AA13519, AA20245), and the US Department of the Army/DoD-TATRC Grant 10235005.05. I thank Chris Cunningham for his comments on a draft of this chapter.

References

  1. Barkley-Levenson, A. M., & Crabbe, J. C. (2012). Ethanol drinking microstructure of a high drinking in the dark selected mouse line. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36, 1330–1339.Google Scholar
  2. Barkley-Levenson, A. M., Cunningham, C. L., Smitasin, P. J., & Crabbe, J. C. (2013). Addiction Biology, epub ahead of print.Google Scholar
  3. Barth, K. S., & Malcolm, R. J. (2010). Disulfiram: An old therapeutic with new applications. CNS and Neurological Disorders: Drug Targets, 9, 5–12.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, H. C. (2013). Animal models of excessive alcohol consumption in rodents. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 355–377.Google Scholar
  5. Belknap, J. K., & Atkins, A. L. (2001). The replicability of QTLs for murine alcohol preference drinking behavior across eight independent studies. Mammalian Genome, 12, 893–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Belknap, J. K., Crabbe, J. C., & Young, E. R. (1993). Voluntary consumption of ethanol in 15 inbred mouse strains. Psychopharmacology, 112, 503–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell, R. L., Sable, H. J., Colombo, G., Hyytia, P., Rodd, Z. A., & Lumeng, L. (2012). Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 103, 119–155.Google Scholar
  8. Bice, P. J., Liang, T., Zhang, L., Graves, T. J., Carr, L. G., Lai, D., et al. (2010). Fine mapping and expression of candidate genes within the chromosome 10 QTL region of the high and low alcohol-drinking rats. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N. Y.), 44, 477–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bice, P. J., Lai, D., Zhang, L., & Foroud, T. (2011). Fine mapping quantitative trait loci that influence alcohol preference behavior in the high and low alcohol preferring (HAP and LAP) mice. Behavior Genetics, 41, 565–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilbao, A. (2013). Advanced transgenic approaches to understand alcohol-related phenotypes in animals. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 271–311.Google Scholar
  11. Bjork, K., Hansson, A. C., & Sommer, W. H. (2010). Genetic variation and brain gene expression in rodent models of alcoholism implications for medication development. International Review of Neurobiology, 91, 129–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. E. (1999). Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism. (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  13. Broadbent, J., Muccino, K. J., & Cunningham, C. L. (2002). Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in 15 inbred mouse strains. Behavioral Neuroscience, 116, 138–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, J. S. (1961). The motivation of behavior. New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  15. Chester, J. A., Lumeng, L., Li, T. K., & Grahame, N. J. (2003). High- and low-alcohol-preferring mice show differences in conditioned taste aversion to alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 27, 12–18.Google Scholar
  16. Ciccocioppo, R. (2013). Genetically selected alcohol preferring rats to model human alcoholism. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 251–269.Google Scholar
  17. Crabbe, J. C. (2012). Translational behaviour-genetic studies of alcohol: Are we there yet? Genes Brain and Behavior, 11, 375–386.Google Scholar
  18. Crabbe, J. C. (2013). Use of animal models of alcohol-related behavior. In A. Pfefferbaum & E. V. Sullivan (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neurology: Alcoholism. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  19. Crabbe, J. C., Phillips, T. J., Harris, R. A., Arends, M. A., & Koob, G. F. (2006). Alcohol-related genes: Contributions from studies with genetically engineered mice. Addiction Biology, 11, 195–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Crabbe, J. C., Metten, P., Rhodes, J. S., Yu, C.-H., Brown, L. L., Phillips, T. J., et al. (2009). A line of mice selected for high blood ethanol concentrations shows drinking in the dark to intoxication. Biological Psychiatry, 65, 662–670.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Crabbe, J. C., Phillips, T. J., & Belknap, J. K. (2010). The complexity of alcohol drinking: Studies in rodent genetic models. Behavior Genetics, 40, 737–750.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Crabbe, J. C., Harris, R. A., & Koob, G. F. (2011). Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1216, 24–40.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Crabbe, J. C., Colville, A. M., Kruse, L. C., Cameron, A. J., Spence, S. E., Schlumbohm, J. P., et al. (2012a). Ethanol tolerance and withdrawal severity in high drinking in the dark selectively bred mice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36, 1152–1161.Google Scholar
  24. Crabbe, J. C., Harkness, J. H., Spence, S. E., Huang, L. C., & Metten, P. (2012b). Intermittent availability of ethanol does not always lead to elevated drinking in mice. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 47, 509–517.Google Scholar
  25. Crabbe, J. C., Kruse, L. C., Colville, A. M., Cameron, A. J., Spence, S. E., Schlumbohm, J. P., et al. (2012c). Ethanol sensitivity in high drinking in the dark selectively bred mice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36, 1162–1170.Google Scholar
  26. Crabbe, J. C., Metten, P., Huang, L. C., Schlumbohm, J. P., Spence, S. E., Barkley-Levenson, A. M., et al. (2012d). Ethanol withdrawal-associated drinking and drinking in the dark: Common and discrete genetic contributions. Addiction Genetics, 1, 3–11.Google Scholar
  27. Cunningham, C. L., & Phillips, T. J. (2003). Genetic basis of ethanol reward. In R. Maldonado (Ed.), Molecular biology of drug addiction (pp. 263–294). Totowa: Humana.Google Scholar
  28. Cunningham, C. L., Gremel, C. M., & Groblewski, P. A. (2006). Drug-induced conditioned place preference and aversion in mice. Nature Protocols, 1, 1662–1670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Cunningham, C. L. L., Gremel, C. M., & Groblewski, P. A. (2009). Genetic influences on conditioned taste aversion. In S. Reilly & T. R. Schachtman (Eds.), Conditioned taste aversion: Behavioral and neural processes (pp. 387–421). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cunningham, C. L., Fidler, T. L., Murphy, K. V., Mulgrew, J. A., & Smitasin, P. J. (2013). Time-dependent negative reinforcement of ethanol intake by alleviation of acute withdrawal. Biological Psychiatry, 73, 249–255.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Drews, E., Racz, I., Lacava, A. D., Barth, A., Bilkei-Gorzo, A., Wienker, T. F., et al. (2010). Quantitative trait loci contributing to physiological and behavioural ethanol responses after acute and chronic treatment. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 13, 155–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Egli, M. (2005). Can experimental paradigms and animal models be used to discover clinically effective medications for alcoholism? Addiction Biology, 10, 309–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ehlers, C. L., Walter, N. A. R., Dick, D. M., Buck, K. J., & Crabbe, J. C. (2010). A comparison of selected quantitative trait loci associated with alcohol use phenotypes in humans and mouse models. Addiction Biology, 15, 185–199.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Falconer, D. S., & Mackay, T. F. C. (1996). Introduction to quantitative genetics. (4th ed.). Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  35. Fehr, C., Shirley, R. L., Crabbe, J. C., Belknap, J. K., Buck, K. J., & Phillips, T. J. (2005). The syntaxin binding protein 1 gene (Stxbp1) is a candidate for an ethanol preference drinking locus on mouse chromosome 2. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 708–720.Google Scholar
  36. Fidler, T. L., Clews, T. W., & Cunningham, C. L. (2006). Reestablishing an intragastric ethanol self-infusion model in rats. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 30, 414–428.Google Scholar
  37. Fidler, T. L., Dion, A. M., Powers, M. S., Ramirez, J. J., Mulgrew, J. A., Smitasin, P. J., et al. (2011). Intragastric self-infusion of ethanol in high- and low-drinking mouse genotypes after passive ethanol exposure. Genes Brain and Behavior, 10, 264–275.Google Scholar
  38. Fidler, T. L., Powers, M. S., Ramirez, J. J., Crane, A., Mulgrew, J., Smitasin, P., et al. (2012). Dependence induced increases in intragastric alcohol consumption in mice. Addiction Biology, 17, 13–32.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Files, F. J., Samson, H. H., Denning, C. E., & Marvin, S. (1998). Comparison of alcohol-preferring and nonpreferring selectively bred rat lines. II. Operant self-administration in a continuous-access situation. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 2147–2158.Google Scholar
  40. Gentry, R. T. (1985). An experimental model of self-intoxication in C57 mice. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N. Y.), 2, 671–675.Google Scholar
  41. George, O., Le, M. M., & Koob, G. F. (2012). Allostasis and addiction: Role of the dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor systems. Physiology and Behavior, 106, 58–64.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gill, K., & Boyle, A. E. (2005). Genetic analysis of alcohol intake in recombinant inbred and congenic strains derived from A/J and C57BL/6J progenitors. Mammalian Genome, 16, 319–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gizer, I. R., Edenberg, H. J., Gilder, D. A., Wilhelmsen, K. C., & Ehlers, C. L. (2011). Association of alcohol dehydrogenase genes with alcohol-related phenotypes in a Native American community sample. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 2008–2018.Google Scholar
  44. Goldman, D., & Ducci, F. (2007). Deconstruction of vulnerability to complex diseases: Enhanced effect sizes and power of intermediate phenotypes. Scientific World Journal, 7, 124–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Goldman, D., Oroszi, G., & Ducci, F. (2005). The genetics of addictions: Uncovering the genes. Nature Reviews Genetics, 6, 521–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Grahame, N. J., & Cunningham, C. L. (1997). Intravenous ethanol self-administration in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 21, 56–62.Google Scholar
  47. Grahame, N. J., Li, T. K., & Lumeng, L. (1999). Selective breeding for high and low alcohol preference in mice. Behavior Genetics, 29, 47–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Grahame, N. J., Chester, J. A., Rodd-Henricks, K., Li, T. K., & Lumeng, L. (2001). Alcohol place preference conditioning in high- and low-alcohol preferring selected lines of mice. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 68, 805–814.Google Scholar
  49. Grant, K. A., Leng, X., Green, H. L., Szeliga, K. T., Rogers, L. S., & Gonzales, S. W. (2008). Drinking typography established by scheduled induction predicts chronic heavy drinking in a monkey model of ethanol self-administration. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 1824–1838.Google Scholar
  50. Green, A. S., & Grahame, N. J. (2008). Ethanol drinking in rodents: Is free-choice drinking related to the reinforcing effects of ethanol? Alcohol (Fayetteville, N. Y.), 42, 1–11.Google Scholar
  51. Griffin, W. C., III, Lopez, M. F., & Becker, H. C. (2009). Intensity and duration of chronic ethanol exposure is critical for subsequent escalation of voluntary ethanol drinking in mice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 33, 1893–1900.Google Scholar
  52. Grossman, S. P. (1968). The physiological basis of specific and nonspecific motivational processes. In W. J. Arnold (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 1–46). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  53. Hopf, F. W., Chang, S. J., Sparta, D. R., Bowers, M. S., & Bonci, A. (2010). Motivation for alcohol becomes resistant to quinine adulteration after 3 to 4 months of intermittent alcohol self-administration. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 1565–1573.Google Scholar
  54. Hughes, J. R. (2009). Alcohol withdrawal seizures. Epilepsy & Behavior, 15, 92–97.Google Scholar
  55. Iancu, O. D., Overbeck, D., Darakjian, P., Metten, P., McWeeney, S., Crabbe, J. C., et al. (2013). Selection for drinking in the dark alters brain gene coexpression networks. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 37(8), 1295–1303.Google Scholar
  56. Izidio, G. S., Oliveira, L. C., Oliveira, L. F., Pereira, E., Wehrmeister, T. D., & Ramos, A. (2011). The influence of sex and estrous cycle on QTL for emotionality and ethanol consumption. Mammalian Genome, 22, 329–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Karahanian, E., Quintanilla, M. E., Tampier, L., Rivera-Meza, M., Bustamante, D., Gonzalez-Lira, V., et al. (2011). Ethanol as a prodrug: Brain metabolism of ethanol mediates its reinforcing effects. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 606–612.Google Scholar
  58. Kliethermes, C. L., Cronise, K., & Crabbe, J. C. (2004). Anxiety-like behavior in mice in two apparatuses during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 28, 1012–1019.Google Scholar
  59. Koob, G. F. (2013). Theoretical frameworks and mechanistic aspects of alcohol addiction: Alcohol addiction as a reward deficit disorder. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 3–30.Google Scholar
  60. Leeman, R. F., Heilig, M., Cunningham, C. L., Stephens, D. N., Duka, T., & O’Malley, S. S. (2010). Ethanol consumption: How should we measure it? Achieving consilience between human and animal phenotypes. Addiction Biology, 15, 109–124.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lesscher, H. M., & Vanderschuren, L. J. (2012). Compulsive drug use and its neural substrates. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 23(5–6), 731–745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Lesscher, H. M., van Kerkhof, L. W., & Vanderschuren, L. J. (2010). Inflexible and indifferent alcohol drinking in male mice. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 34, 1219–1225.Google Scholar
  63. Levine, S. (1968). Hormones and conditioning. In W. J. Arnold (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 85–103). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  64. Liu, J., Zhou, Z., Hodgkinson, C. A., Yuan, Q., Shen, P. H., Mulligan, C. J., et al. (2011). Haplotype-based study of the association of alcohol-metabolizing genes with alcohol dependence in four independent populations. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 304–316.Google Scholar
  65. Lopez, M. F., Grahame, N. J., & Becker, H. C. (2011). Development of ethanol withdrawal-related sensitization and relapse drinking in mice selected for high- or low-ethanol preference. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 35, 953–962.Google Scholar
  66. Marchant, N. J., Khuc, T. N., Pickens, C. L., Bonci, A., & Shaham, Y. (2013). Context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment in a rat model. Biological Psychiatry, 73, 256–262.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Mardones, J. (1951). On the relationship between deficiency of B viatmins and alcohol intake in rats. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 12, 563–575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mardones, J. (1960). Experimentally induced changes in the free selection of ethanol. In C. C. Pfeiffer & J. R. Smythies (Eds.), International review of neurobiology (pp. 41–76). New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  69. Matson, L. M., & Grahame, N. J. (2011). Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice. Addiction Biology, 18(6), 921–999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. McClearn, G. E. (1968). Genetics and motivation of the mouse. In W. J. Arnold (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 47–83). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  71. McClearn, G. E., & Rodgers, D. A. (1959). Differences in alcohol preference among inbred strains of mice. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 20, 691–695.Google Scholar
  72. Milner, L. C., & Buck, K. J. (2010). Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and genes (QTGs) for alcohol-related phenotypes in mice. International Review of Neurobiology, 91, 173–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mulligan, M. K., Ponomarev, I., Hitzemann, R. J., Belknap, J. K., Tabakoff, B., Harris, R. A., et al. (2006). Toward understanding the genetics of alcohol drinking through transcriptome meta-analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 6368–6373.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Nelson, E. C., Heath, A. C., Bucholz, K. K., Madden, P. A., Fu, Q., Knopik, V., et al. (2004). Genetic epidemiology of alcohol-induced blackouts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 257–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Oberlin, B., Best, C., Matson, L., Henderson, A., & Grahame, N. (2011). Derivation and characterization of replicate high- and low-alcohol preferring lines of mice and a high-drinking crossed HAP line. Behavior Genetics, 41, 288–302.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Pandey, S. C., Zhang, H., Ugale, R., Prakash, A., Xu, T., & Misra, K. (2008). Effector immediate-early gene arc in the amygdala plays a critical role in alcoholism. Journal of Neuroscience, 28, 2589–2600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Penning, R., McKinney, A., Bus, L. D., Olivier, B., Slot, K., & Verster, J. C. (2013). Measurement of alcohol hangover severity: Development of the Alcohol Hangover Severity Scale (AHSS). Psychopharmacology, 225, 803–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Phillips, T. J. (1997). Behavior genetics of drug sensitization. Critical Reviews in Neurobiology, 11, 21–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Rhodes, J. S., Best, K., Belknap, J. K., Finn, D. A., & Crabbe, J. C. (2005). Evaluation of a simple model of ethanol drinking to intoxication in C57BL/6J mice. Physiology and Behavior, 84, 53–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rhodes, J. S., Ford, M. M., Yu, C.-H., Brown, L. L., & Finn, D. A., Garland, T. Jr., et al. (2007). Mouse inbred strain differences in ethanol drinking to intoxication. Genes Brain and Behavior, 6, 1–18.Google Scholar
  81. Richter, C. P. (1926). A study of the effect of moderate doses of alcohol on the growth and behavior of the rat. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 44, 397–418.Google Scholar
  82. Richter, C. P. (1953). Alcohol, beer and wine as foods. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 14, 525–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Richter, C. P., & Campbell, K. H. (1940). Alcohol taste thresholds and concentrations of solution preferred by rats. Science, 91, 507–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Rivera-Meza, M., Quintanilla, M. E., & Tampier, L. (2012). Reduction of ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats by dual expression gene transfer. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 47, 102–108.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rodgers, D. A. (1966). Factors underlying differences in alcohol preference among inbred strains of mice. Psychosomatic Medicine, 28, 498–513.Google Scholar
  86. Samson, H. H. (2000). The microstructure of ethanol drinking: Genetic and behavioral factors in the control of drinking patterns. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 95(Suppl 2), S61–72.Google Scholar
  87. Samson, H. H., & Czachowski, C. L. (2002). Behavioral measures of alcohol self-administration and intake control: Rodent models. International Review of Neurobiology, 54, 107–143.Google Scholar
  88. Samson, H. H., Files, F. J., Denning, C., & Marvin, S. (1998). Comparison of alcohol-preferring and nonpreferring selectively bred rat lines. I. Ethanol initiation and limited access operant self-administration. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 22, 2133–2146.Google Scholar
  89. Samson, H. H., Cunningham, C. L., Czachowski, C. L., Chappell, A., Legg, B., & Shannon, E. (2004). Devaluation of ethanol reinforcement. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N. Y.), 32, 203–212.Google Scholar
  90. Saxon, A. J., & McCarty, D. (2005). Challenges in the adoption of new pharmacotherapeutics for addiction to alcohol and other drugs. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 108, 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Shabani, S., Martin-Fardon, R., Kerr, T. M., & Weiss, F. (2012). Rats with history of ethanol dependence resist suppression of ethanol seeking by punishment. Neuroscience Abstracts, 169.02/U19. Ref Type: Abstract.Google Scholar
  92. Socaransky, S. M., Aragon, C. M., Amit, Z., & Blander, A. (1984). Higher correlation of ethanol consumption with brain than liver aldehyde dehydrogenase in three strains of rats. Psychopharmacology, 84, 250–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Sommer, W. H., & Spanagel, R. (2013). Behavioral neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  94. Spanagel, R., & Vengeliene, V. (2013). New pharmacological treatment strategies for relapse prevention. Current Topics in Behavioral Neuroscience, 13, 583–609.Google Scholar
  95. Sprow, G. M., & Thiele, T. E. (2012). The neurobiology of binge-like ethanol drinking: Evidence from rodent models. Physiology and Behavior, 106, 325–331.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Stephens, D. N., Duka, T., Crombag, H. S., Cunningham, C. L., Heilig, M., & Crabbe, J. C. (2010). Reward sensitivity: Issues of measurement, and achieving consilience between human and animal phenotypes. Addiction Biology, 15, 145–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Valdez, G. R., Roberts, A. J., Chan, K., Davis, H., Brennan, M., Zorrilla, E. P., et al. (2002). Increased ethanol self-administration and anxiety-like behavior during acute ethanol withdrawal and protracted abstinence: Regulation by corticotropin-releasing factor. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 1494–1501.Google Scholar
  98. Vendruscolo, L. F., Barbier, E., Schlosburg, J. E., Misra, K. K., Whitfield, T. W. Jr., Logrip, M. L., et al. (2012). Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats. Journal of Neuroscience, 32, 7563–7571.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wahlsten, D., Bachmanov, A., Finn, D. A., & Crabbe, J. C. (2006). Stability of inbred mouse strain differences in behavior and brain size between laboratories and across decades. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 16364–16369.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wang, X., Mozhui, K., Li, Z., Mulligan, M. K., Ingels, J. F., Zhou, X., et al. (2012). A promoter polymorphism in the Per3 gene is associated with alcohol and stress response. Translational Psychiatry, 2, e73.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. West, R. (2006). Theory of addiction. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  102. Williams, R. J., Berry, L. J., & Beerstecher, E. Jr. (1949). Biochemical individuality. III. Genetotrophic factors in the etiology of alcoholism. Archives of Biochemistry, 23, 275–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Wise, R. A., & Bozarth, M. A. (1987). A psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction. Psychological Reviews, 94, 469–492.Google Scholar
  104. Yoneyama, N., Crabbe, J. C., Ford, M. M., Murillo, A., & Finn, D. A. (2008). Voluntary ethanol consumption in 22 inbred mouse strains. Alcohol (Fayetteville, N. Y.), 42, 149–160.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Portland Alcohol Research Center, Department of Behavioral NeuroscienceOregon Health & Science UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.VA Medical Center (R&D 12)PortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations