Skin Temperature in Lower Hind Limb Subjected to Distal Vein Arterialization in Rats
Vascular surgery for distal vein arterialization (DVA) has been adopted clinically as a strategy for saving arteriosclerotic lower limbs from amputation. To gain more detailed information on DVA, the present study investigated the procedure in hind limbs of rats under isoflurane anesthesia. Since successful DVA requires destruction of venous valves, a coronary angioplasty catheter guidewire was used to destroy valves either solely in the femoral vein or in both femoral and popliteal veins. The femoral artery was then anastomosed to the femoral vein with sutures under binocular microsopic control. Changes in the distribution of skin blood flow in the hind limbs were studied with a thermal camera. Skin temperature increased in the thigh and knee after femoral venous valve destruction, but hyperthermia was observed in the distal leg and foot only when the valves in the popliteal vein were also disrupted. These results showed that increased arterial blood flow could be established by DVA surgery in both the proximal and distal regions of the hind limbs.
KeywordsArteriosclerosis obliterans Distal vein arterialization Valve destruction Thermo camera Skin temperature Coronary angioplasty guide wire
The authors wish to express their thanks to Prof. Dr. Ian Silver and Prof. Dr. Maria Erecinska, Bristol University, for reading the manuscript and valuable suggestions.
- 2.Koyama T, Sasajima T (2010) Sufficient oxygen can be transported to resting skeletal muscle via arterialization of the vein: theoretical consideration in a rat model. In: LaManna JC, Puchowicz MA et al (eds) Oxygen transport to tissue XXXII (AEMB701). Springer, New York, pp 335–339Google Scholar
- 3.Sasajima T, Koyama T (2011) Biological maintenance of distal vein arterialization. In: Wolf M, Bucher HV et al (eds) Oxygen transport to tissue XXXIII (AEMB737). Springer, New York, pp 259–262Google Scholar
- 4.Koyama T, Sasajima T (2012) Retrograde perfusion of the hind leg in diabetic patients suffering from the arteriosclerosis obliterans: theoretical considerations of oxygen supply and lymphatic flow based on rat models. In: Welch WJ, Palm F et al (eds) Oxygen transport to tissue XXXIV (AEMB765). Springer, New York, pp 245–250Google Scholar
- 5.Ziegler S, Zöch C, Gschwandtner M, Eckhardt G, Windberger U, Minar E, Rüdiger H, Osterode W (2005) Thermoregulation and rheological properties of blood in primary Raynaud's phenomenon and the vibration-induced white-finger syndrome. Intern Arch Occup Environ Health 78(3):218–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Izumi K, Akata T, Takahashi S (2001) Role of endothelium in the action of isoflurane on vascular smooth muscle of hypertension-induced venous valve remodeling. J Vasc Surg 39:1329–34Google Scholar