Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and blood volume response in activating muscles during treadmill exercise were compared between prepubertal boys (n = 9, age: 9 ± 1 years) and young men (n = 9, age: 22 ± 2 years). SmO2 and blood volume responses were monitored continuously during the exercise at the gastrocnemius medialis muscle by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. SmO2 was significantly decreased only at peak exercise in the boys, even though a significant decrease in SmO2 was observed at 60, 80, and 100 % of peak O2 uptake in the men (p < 0.05). No significant increase in blood volume was observed in the boys, while blood volume was significantly increased in the men with increased exercise intensity (p < 0.05). These results suggest that both blood volume and deoxygenation response in activating muscle may be minor in prepubertal boys, compared to young men. The blunted deoxygenation response in prepubertal boys may be caused by undeveloped diffusive O2 transport (i.e. mitochondrial respiration).
Blood volume Muscle oxygen saturation Near-infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy Prepubertal boys Young men
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
The authors are grateful for revision of this manuscript by Andrea Hope. We also thank Masayuki Konishi and Hiroki Tabata (Waseda University, Japan) for their helpful technical assistance.
Delp MD (1999) Control of skeletal muscle perfusion at the onset of dynamic exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31(7):1011–1018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Delp MD, Laughlin MH (1998) Regulation of skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise. Acta Physiol Scand 162(3):411–419CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Koch G (1974) Muscle blood flow after ischemic work and during bicycle ergometer work in boys aged 12 years. Acta Paediatr Belg 28(Suppl):29–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
Turley KR, Wilmore JH (1997) Cardiovascular responses to treadmill and cycle ergometer exercise in children and adults. J Appl Physiol 83(3):948–957CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Rowland TW, Auchinachie JA, Keenan TJ et al (1987) Physiologic responses to treadmill running in adult and prepubertal males. Int J Sports Med 8(4):292–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Honig CR, Odoroff CL, Frierson JL (1982) Active and passive capillary control in red muscle at rest and in exercise. Am J Physiol 243(12):H196–H206PubMedGoogle Scholar
Gotshall RW, Bauer TA, Fahrner SL (1996) Cycling cadence alters exercise hemodynamics. Int J Sports Med 17(1):17–21CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM et al (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320(7244):1240–1243CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH (1976) Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty. Arch Dis Child 51(3):170–179CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
Takagi S, Kime R, Niwayama M et al (2013) The influence of different exercise modes on muscle oxygen saturation and its relationship to peak oxygen uptake. Jpn J Clin Sports Med 21(2):388–395Google Scholar
Komiyama T, Quaresima V, Shigematsu H et al (2001) Comparison of two spatially resolved near-infrared photometers in the detection of tissue oxygen saturation: poor reliability at very low oxygen saturation. Clin Sci (Lond) 101(6):715–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niwayama M, Lin L, Shao J et al (2000) Quantitative measurement of muscle hemoglobin oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy with correction for the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer. Rev Sci Instrum 71(12):4571–4575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niwayama M, Sone S, Murata H et al (2007) Errors in muscle oxygenation measurement using spatially-resolved NIRS and its correction. J Jpn Coll Angiol 47(1):17–20Google Scholar
Berg A, Kim SS, Keul J (1986) Skeletal muscle enzyme activities in healthy young subjects. Int J Sports Med 7(4):236–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Zanconato S, Buchthal S, Barstow TJ et al (1993) 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of leg muscle metabolism during exercise in children and adults. J Appl Physiol 74(5):2214–2218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar