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Skeletal Muscle and Glioma Oxygenation by Carbogen Inhalation in Rats: A Longitudinal Study by EPR Oximetry Using Single-Probe Implantable Oxygen Sensors

  • Huagang Hou
  • Nadeem Khan
  • Jean Lariviere
  • Sassan Hodge
  • Eunice Y. Chen
  • Lesley A. Jarvis
  • Alan Eastman
  • Benjamin B. Williams
  • Periannan Kuppusamy
  • Harold M. Swartz
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 812)

Abstract

The feasibility of EPR oximetry using a single-probe implantable oxygen sensor (ImOS) was tested for repeated measurement of pO2 in skeletal muscle and ectopic 9L tumors in rats. The ImOS (50 mm length) were constructed using nickel–chromium alloy wires, with lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc, oximetry probe) crystals loaded in the sensor loop and coated with AF 2400® Teflon. These ImOS were implanted into the skeletal muscle in the thigh and subcutaneous 9L tumors. Dynamic changes in tissue pO2 were assessed by EPR oximetry at baseline, during tumor growth, and repeated hyperoxygenation with carbogen breathing. The mean skeletal muscle pO2 of normal rats was stable and significantly increased during carbogen inhalation in experiments repeated for 12 weeks. The 9L tumors were hypoxic with a tissue pO2 of 12.8 ± 6.4 mmHg on day 1; however, the response to carbogen inhalation varied among the animals. A significant increase in the glioma pO2 was observed during carbogen inhalation on day 9 and day 14 only. In summary, EPR oximetry with ImOS allowed direct and longitudinal oxygen measurements in deep muscle tissue and tumors. The heterogeneity of 9L tumors in response to carbogen highlights the need to repeatedly monitor pO2 to confirm tumor oxygenation so that such changes can be taken into account in planning therapies and interpreting results.

Keywords

Carbogen Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry Glioma Implantable oxygen sensor (ImOS) Partial pressure of oxygen (pO2

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by a Hitchcock Foundation Program Project Grant and PROUTY grant from the NCCC at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Huagang Hou
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nadeem Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jean Lariviere
    • 1
  • Sassan Hodge
    • 4
  • Eunice Y. Chen
    • 2
    • 4
  • Lesley A. Jarvis
    • 2
    • 5
  • Alan Eastman
    • 2
    • 6
  • Benjamin B. Williams
    • 1
    • 2
  • Periannan Kuppusamy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Harold M. Swartz
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyGeisel School of MedicineHanoverUSA
  2. 2.Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical CenterLebanonUSA
  3. 3.EPR Center for Viable Systems, Department of RadiologyGeisel School of Medicine at DartmouthHanoverUSA
  4. 4.Department of SurgeryGeisel School of MedicineHanoverUSA
  5. 5.Department of MedicineGeisel School of MedicineHanoverUSA
  6. 6.Department of PharmacologyGeisel School of MedicineHanoverUSA
  7. 7.EPR Center for the Study of Viable SystemsThe Geisel School of Medicine at DartmouthLebanonUSA

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