The Problem of Whiplash Injuries: Aetiology, Assessment and Treatment

Part of the Handbooks in Health, Work, and Disability book series (SHHDW)


A large number of people are involved in a survivable road traffic crash (RTC) each year. While the health burden of major injuries, such as spinal cord and brain injuries, is clearly recognised, the physical and mental health outcomes of RTC survivors with predominantly non-hospitalised injuries are also surprisingly poor. Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) are the most common non-hospitalised RTC injury, and up to 50 % of people who experience a whiplash injury will never fully recover, and approximately 30 % will remain moderately to severely disabled by their condition (Carroll et al., 2008; Rebbeck, Sindhausen, & Cameron, 2006; Sterling, Jull, & Kenardy, 2006). Less recognised are the mental health issues that accompany this condition. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders has been shown to be 25 % for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Kenardy, Heron-Delaney, Bellamy, Sterling, & Connelly, 2011; Mayou & Bryant, 2002; Sterling, Hendrikz, & Kenardy, 2010), 31 % for major depressive episode and 20 % for generalised anxiety disorder (Heron-Delaney, Kenardy, Bellamy, Sterling, & Connelly, 2011). Moreover, whiplash incurs enormous personal, social and economic costs. In Queensland, Australia, the economic costs related to whiplash injury are substantial, and exceeded $400 million from 2002 to 2009, with the condition accounting for the vast majority of any submitted claims, as well as the greatest incurred costs in the Queensland compulsory third-party insurance scheme (MAIC, 2010). Claims for personal injury after whiplash cost the United Kingdom more than £3 billion per year (Joslin, Khan, & Bannister, 2004), while data from the United States are even greater, with costs reaching $230 billion US dollars per annum (Blincoe et al., 2002).


Neck Pain Ptsd Symptom Pain Catastrophising Whiplash Injury Injured People 


  1. Asmundson, G., Coons, M., Taylor, S., & Katz, J. (2002). PTSD and the experience of pain: Research and clinical implications. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47(10), 930–937.Google Scholar
  2. Ayesh, E., Jensen, T., & Svensson, P. (2007). Hyper-sensitivity to mechanical and intra-articular electrical stimuli in persons with painful temporomandibular joints. Journal of Dental Research, 86(12), 1187–1192.Google Scholar
  3. Bajaj, P., Bajaj, P., Graven-Nielsen, T., & Arendt-Nielsen, L. (2001). Osteoarthritis and its association with muscle hyperalgesia: An experimental controlled study. Pain, 93(2), 107–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Banic, B., Petersen-Felix, S., Andersen, O., Radanov, B., Villiger, P., Arendt-Nielsen, L., et al. (2004). Evidence for spinal cord hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury and in fibromyalgia. Pain, 107(1–2), 7–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnsley, L., Lord, S., & Bogduk, N. (1994). Clinical review. Whiplash injury. Pain, 58, 283–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Blincoe, L., Seay, A., Zaloshnja, E., Miller, T., Romano, E., Luchter, S., et al. (2002). Economic impact of motor vehicle crashes 2000 (DOT) (pp. 1–94). Washington, DC: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.Google Scholar
  7. Buitenhuis, J., DeJong, J., Jaspers, J., & Groothoff, J. (2006). Relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and the course of whiplash complaints. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 61(3), 681–689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cameron, P., & Gabbe, B. (2009). Editorial: The effect of compensation claims on outcomes after injury. Injury, 40, 905–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Carroll, L., Connelly, L., Spearing, N., Cote, P., Buitenhuis, J., & Kenardy, J. (2011). Complexities in understanding the role of compensation related factors on recovery from whiplash associated disorders. Spine, 36(25S), S316–S321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carroll, L., Holm, L., Ferrari, R., Ozegovic, D., & Cassidy, D. (2009). Recovery in whiplash-associated disorders: Do you get what you expect. The Journal of Rheumatology, 36, 1063–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Carroll, L., Holm, L., Hogg-Johnson, S., Cote, P., Cassidy, D., Haldeman, S., et al. (2008). Course and prognostic factors for neck pain in whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Results of the bone and joint decade 2000–2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders. Spine, 33(42), 583–592.Google Scholar
  12. Carroll, L., Liu, Y., Holm, L., Cassidy, D., & Cote, P. (2011). Pain-related emotions in early stages of recovery in whiplash-associated disorders: Their presence, intensity and association with pain recovery. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(8), 708–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, J., Lipska, B., & Halim, N. (2004). Functional analysis of genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT): Effects on mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in postmortem human brain. American Journal of Human Genetics, 75, 807–821.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chien, A., Eliav, E., & Sterling, M. (2008). Whiplash (Grade II) and cervical radiculopathy share a similar sensory presentation: An investigation using quantitative sensory testing. Clinical Journal of Pain, 24(7), 595–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chien, A., Eliav, E., & Sterling, M. (2009). Hypoaesthesia occurs with sensory hypersensitivity in chronic whiplash: Indication of a minor peripheral neuropathy? Manual Therapy, 14, 137–145.Google Scholar
  16. Chien, A., Eliav, E., & Sterling, M. (2010). Sensory hypoaesthesia is a feature of chronic whiplash but not chronic idiopathic neck pain. Manual Therapy, 15(1), 48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Connelly, L., & Spearing, N. (2011). Compensation and health outcomes. In M. Sterling & J. Kenardy (Eds.), Whiplash: Evidence base for clinical practice. Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  18. Coombes, B., Bisset, L., & Vicenzino, B. (2012). Thermal hyperalgesia distinguishes those with severe pain and disability in unilateral lateral epicondylalgia. Clinical Journal of Pain, 28(7), 595–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cote, P., Hogg-Johnson, S., Cassidy, J. D., Carroll, L., Frank, J. W., & Bombardier, C. (2007). Early aggressive care and delayed recovery form whiplash: Isolated finding or reproducible result? Arthritis and Rheumatism, 57(5), 861–868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Curatolo, M., Arendt-Nielsen, L., & Petersen-Felix, S. (2004). Evidence, mechanisms and clinical implications of central hypersensitivity in chronic pain after whiplash injury. Clinical Journal of Pain, 20(6), 469–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Curatolo, M., Arendt-Nielsen, L., & Petersen-Felix, S. (2006). Central hypersensitivity in chronic pain: Mechanisms and clinical implications. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 17, 287–302.Google Scholar
  22. Curatolo, M., Bogduk, N., Ivancic, P., McLean, S., Siegmund, G., & Winkelstein, B. (2011). The role of tissue damage in whiplash associated disorders. Spine, 36(25S), S309–S315.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Curatolo, M., & Sterling, M. (2011). Pain-processing mechanisms in whiplash associated disorders. In M. Sterling & J. Kenardy (Eds.), Whiplash: Evidence-base for clinical practice. Australia: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  24. Dall’Alba, P., Sterling, M., Trealeven, J., Edwards, S., & Jull, G. (2001). Cervical range of motion discriminates between asymptomatic and whiplash subjects. Spine, 26(19), 2090–2094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Diatchenko, L., Slade, G., Nackley, A., Bhalang, K., Sigurdsson, A., Belfer, I., et al. (2005). Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of a chronic pain condition. Human Molecular Genetics, 14, 135–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunne, R., Kenardy, J., & Sterling, M. (2012a). The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder on physiological arousal, disability and sensory pain thresholds in patients with chronic whiplash, under review.Google Scholar
  27. Dunne, R., Kenardy, J., & Sterling, M. (2012b). A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of PTSD in the context of chronic whiplash. Clinical Journal of Pain, 28(9), 755–765.Google Scholar
  28. Elbers, N., Hulst, L., Cuijpers, P., Akkermans, A., & Bruinvels, D. (2013). Do compensation processes impair mental health? A meta-analysis. Injury, 44(5), 674–683.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Elliott, J., Jull, G., Noteboom, T., Darnell, R., Galloway, G., & Gibbon, W. (2006). Fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor muscles in persistent whiplash associated disorders: An MRI analysis. Spine, 31(22), E847–E851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Elliott, J., Jull, G., Sterling, M., Noteboom, T., Darnell, R., & Galloway, G. (2008). Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic insidious onset neck pain. Clinical Radiology, 63(6), 681–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Elliott, J., O’Leary, S., Sterling, M., Hendrikz, J., Pedler, A., & Jull, G. (2010). MRI findings of fatty infiltrate in the cervical flexors in chronic whiplash. Spine, 35(9), 948–954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Elliott, J., Pedler, A., Kenardy, J., Galloway, G., Jull, G., & Sterling, M. (2011). The temporal development of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles following whiplash injury: An association with pain and posttraumatic stress. PLOS ONE, 6(6), e21194.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Falla, D., Jull, G., & Hodges, P. (2004). Neck pain patients demonstrate reduced EMG activity of the deep cervical flexor muscles during performance of the cranio-cervical flexion test. Spine, 29(19), 2108–2114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferrari, R., Rowe, B., Majumdar, S., Cassidy, D., Blitz, S., Wright, S., et al. (2005). Simple educational intervention to improve the recovery from acute whiplash: Results of a randomized, controlled trial. Academic Emergency Medicine, 12(8), 699–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Foa, E., Riggs, D., Dancu, C., & Rothbaum, B. (1993). Reliability and validity of a brief instrument for assessing post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6(4), 459–473.Google Scholar
  36. Forbes, D., Creamer, M., Phelps, A., Couineau, A., Cooper, J., Bryant, R., et al. (2007). Treating adults with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in general practice: A clinical update. Medical Journal of Australia, 187(2), 120–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. France, C., Rhudy, J., & McGlone, S. (2009). Using normalized EMG to define the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR) threshold: Further evaluation of standardized NFR scoring criteria. Pain, 145(1–2), 211–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gaab, J., Baumann, S., Budnoik, A., Gmunder, H., Hottinger, N., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Reduced reactivity and enhanced negative feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in chronic whiplash associated disorders. Pain, 119, 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. George, S., Fritz, J., Bialosky, J., & Donald, D. (2003). The effect of a fear-avoidance-based physical therapy intervention for patients with acute low back pain: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Spine, 28, 2551–2560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Goldsmith, R., Wright, C., Bell, S., & Rushton, A. (2012). Cold hyperalgesia as a prognostic factor in whiplash associated disorders: A systematic review. Manual Therapy, 17(5), 402–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gottrup, H., Andersen, J., Arendt-Nielsen, L., & Jensen, T. (2000). Psychophysical examination in patients with post-mastectomy pain. Pain, 87(3), 275–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Haines, T., Gross, A., Burnie, S., Goldsmith, C., & Perry, J. (2009). Patient education for neck pain with or without radiculopathy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4), CD005106.Google Scholar
  43. Haldeman, S., Carroll, L., Cassidy, D., Schubert, J., & Nygren, A. (2008). The bone and joint decade 2000–2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders executive summary. Spine, 33(4s), S5–S7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Heron-Delaney, M., Kenardy, J., Bellamy, N., Sterling, M., & Connelly, L. (2011). Adults’ adjustment to minor and moderate injuries following road traffic crashes: Wave 2 preliminary findings. Report to MAIC.Google Scholar
  45. Holm, L., Carroll, L., Cassidy, D., Skillgate, E., & Ahlbom, A. (2008). Expectations for recovery important in the prognosis of whiplash injuries. PLOS Medicine, 5(5), e105.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jaspers, J. (1998). Whiplash and post-traumatic stress disorder. Disability and Rehabilitation, 20, 397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Joslin, C., Khan, S., & Bannister, G. (2004). Long-term disability after neck injury. A comparative study. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume, 86(7), 1032–1034.Google Scholar
  48. Jull, G. (2000). Deep cervical flexor muscle dysfunction in whiplash. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 8(1/2), 143–154.Google Scholar
  49. Jull, G., Kristjansson, E., & Dall’Alba, P. (2004). Impairment in the cervical flexors: A comparison of whiplash and insidious onset neck pain patients. Manual Therapy, 9(2), 89–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Jull, G., Soderlund, A., Stemper, B., Kenardy, J., Gross, A., Cote, P., et al. (2011). Towards optimal early management after whiplash injury to lessen the rate of transition to chronicity. Spine, 36(25S), s275–s287.Google Scholar
  51. Jull, G., & Sterling, M. (2011). Whiplash injury recovery: A self management guide.
  52. Jull, G., Sterling, M., Kenardy, J., & Beller, E. (2007). Does the presence of sensory hypersensitivity influence outcomes of physical rehabilitation for chronic whiplash?—A preliminary RCT. Pain, 129(2), 28–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Jull, G., Trott, P., Potter, H., Zito, G., Niere, K., Emberson, J., et al. (2002). A randomised controlled trial of physiotherapy management for cervicogenic headache. Spine, 27(17), 1835–1843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kamper, S., Rebbeck, T., Maher, C., McAuley, J., & Sterling, M. (2008). Course and prognostic factors of whiplash: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain, 138(3), 617–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kasch, H., Qerama, E., Bach, F., & Jensen, T. (2005). Reduced cold pressor pain tolerance in non-recovered whiplash patients: A 1 year prospective study. European Journal of Pain, 9(5), 561–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kasch, H., Qerama, E., Kongsted, A., Bendix, T., Jensen, T., & Bach, F. (2008). Clinical assessment of prognostic factors for long-term pain and handicap after whiplash injury: A 1-year prospective study. European Journal of Neurology, 15(11), 1222–1230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Keefe, F., & Somers, T. (2010). Psychological approaches to understanding and treating arthritis pain. Nature Reviews. Rheumatology, 6, 210–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Kenardy, J., Heron-Delaney, M., Bellamy, N., Sterling, M., & Connelly, L. (2011). Adults’ adjustment to minor and moderate injuries following road traffic crashes: Wave 1 fundings. In Q. Report to MAIC (Ed.).Google Scholar
  59. Kenardy, J., & Sterling, M. (2008). Whiplash evidence based treatment resource. Accessed October 30, 2012.
  60. Khwaja, S., Minnerop, M., & Singer, A. (2010). Comparison of ibuprofen, cyclobenzaprine or both in patients with acute cervical strain: A randomized controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, 12(1), 39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Kongsted, A., Leboeuf-Yde, C., Korsholm, L., & Bendix, T. (2008). Are altered smooth pursuit eye movements related to chronic pain and disability following whiplash injuries? A prospective trial with one-year follow-up. Clinical Rehabilitation, 22, 469–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kongsted, A., Qerama, E., Kasch, H., Bach, F., Korsholm, L., Jensen, T., et al. (2008). Education of patients after whiplash injury: Is oral advice any better than a pamphlet? Spine, 33(22), E843–E848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kuch, K., Cox, B. J., Evans, R., & Shulman, I. (1994). Phobias, panic, and pain in 55 survivors of road vehicle accidents. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8(2), 181–187.Google Scholar
  64. Lamb, S., Williams, M., Withers, E., Perry, J., Gates, S., Williamson, E., et al. (2009). A national survey of clinical practice for the management of whiplash-associated disorders in UK emergency departments. Emergency Medicine Journal, 26, 644–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Lewis, C., Souvlis, T., & Sterling, M. (2010). Sensory characteristics of tender points in the low back. Manual Therapy, 15, 451–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Lindstrom, R., Schomacher, J., Farina, D., Rechter, L., & Falla, D. (2011). Association between neck muscle coactivation, pain, and strength in women with neck pain. Manual Therapy, 16(1), 80–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lord, S., Barnsley, L., Wallis, B., & Bogduk, N. (1996). Chronic cervical zygapophysial joint pain after whiplash: A placebo-controlled prevalence study… including commentary by Derby R Jr. Spine, 21(15), 1737–1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. MAA. (2007). Guidelines for the management of whiplash associated disorders (p. 16). Sydney: Motor Accident Authority (NSW).
  69. MacDermid, J., Walton, D., Avery, S., Blanchard, A., Etruw, E., McAlpine, C., et al. (2009). Measurement properties of the Neck Disability Index: A systematic review. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 39(5), 400–417.Google Scholar
  70. Macintyre, P., Scott, D., Schug, S., Visser, E., & Walker, S. (2010). Acute pain management: Scientific evidence. Melbourne: ANZVA & FPM.Google Scholar
  71. MAIC. (2010). Annual report 2009–2010. Brisbane: MAIC.Google Scholar
  72. Maxwell, S., & Sterling, M. (2013). An investigation of the use of a numeric pain rating scale with ice application to the neck to determine cold hyperalgesia. Manual Therapy, 18(2), 172–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Mayou, R., & Bryant, B. (2002). Psychiatry of whiplash neck injury. British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 441–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. McCarthy, S. (2008). Posttraumatic stress diagnostic scale (PDS). Occupational Medicine, 58, 379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. McClune, T., Burton, A., & Waddell, G. (2002). Whiplash associated disorders: A review of the literature to guide patient information and advice. Emergency Medicine Journal, 19, 499–506.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. McFarlane, A. C., Ellis, N., Barton, C., Browne, D., & Van Hooff, M. (2008). The conundrum of medically unexplained symptoms: Questions to consider. Psychosomatics: Journal of Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, 48(5), 369–377. doi: 10.1176/appi.psy.49.5.369.Google Scholar
  77. McLean, S. (2011). The potential contribution of stress systems to the transition to chronic whiplash associated disorders. Spine, 36(25S), S226–S232.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. McLean, S., Clauw, D., Abelson, J., & Liberzon, I. (2005). The development of persistent pain and psychological morbidity after motor vehicle collision: Integrating the potential role of stress response systems into a biopsychosocial model. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 783–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McLean, S., Diatchenko, L., Lee, M., Swor, R., Domeier, R., Jones, J., et al. (2011). Catechol O-methyltransferase haplotype predicts immediate musculoskeletal neck pain and psychological symptoms after motor vehicle collision. The Journal of Pain, 12, 101–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Nackley, A., Tan, K., Fecho, K., Flood, P., Diatchenko, L., & Maixner, W. (2007). Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibition increases pain sensitivity through activation of both beta2- and beta3-adrenergic receptors. Pain, 128(3), 199–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Nederhand, M., Hermens, H., Ijzerman, M., Turk, D., & Zilvold, G. (2002). Cervical muscle dysfunction in chronic whiplash associated disorder grade 2. The relevance of trauma. Spine, 27(10), 1056–1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. NHMRC. (2007). Australian guidelines for the treatment of adults with ASD and PTSD. Canberra: NHMRC.Google Scholar
  83. O’Donnell, M., Creamer, M., Bryant, R., Schnyder, U., & Shalev, A. (2003). Posttraumatic disorders following injury: An empirical and methodological review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 587–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Oliveira, A., Gevirtz, R., & Hubbard, R. (2006). A psycho-educational video used in the emergency department provides effective treatment for whiplash injuries. Spine, 31(15), 1652–1657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Pape, E., Hagen, K. B., Brox, J. I., Natvig, B., & Schirmer, H. (2009). Early multidisciplinary evaluation and advice was ineffective for whiplash-associated disorders. European Journal of Pain, 13, 1068–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Passatore, M., & Roatta, S. (2006). Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(5), 423–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Pedler, A., & Sterling, M. (2011). Assessing fear-avoidance beliefs in patients with whiplash associated disorders: A comparison of 2 measures. Clinical Journal of Pain, 27(6), 502–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Pettersson, K., & Toolanen, G. (1998). High-dose methylprednisolone prevents extensive sick leave after whiplash injury. Spine, 23(9), 984–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Phillips, L., Carroll, L., Cassidy, D., & Cote, P. (2010). Whiplash-associated disorders: Who gets depressed? Who stays depressed? European Spine Journal, 19(6), 945–956.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Provinciali, L., Baroni, M., Illuminati, L., & Ceravolo, M. (1996). Multimodal treatment to prevent the late whiplash syndrome. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 28(2), 105–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Rebbeck, T., Sindhausen, D., & Cameron, I. (2006). A prospective cohort study of health outcomes following whiplash associated disorders in an Australian population. Injury Prevention, 12, 86–93.Google Scholar
  92. Ronnen, J., De Korte, P., & Brink, P. (1996). Acute whiplash injury: Is there a role for MR imaging. Radiology, 201, 93–96.Google Scholar
  93. Rosenfeld, M., Gunnarsson, R., & Borenstein, P. (2000). Early intervention in whiplash-associated disorders. A comparison of two protocols. Spine, 25, 1782–1787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rosenfeld, M., Seferiadis, A., Carllson, J., & Gunnarsson, R. (2003). Active intervention in patients with whiplash associated disorders improves long-term prognosis: A randomised controlled clinical trial. Spine, 28(22), 2491–2498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Rosenfeld, M., Seferiadis, A., & Gunnarsson, R. (2006). Active involvement and intervention in patients exposed to whiplash trauma in automobile crashes reduces costs. Spine, 31(16), 1799–1804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rushton, A., & Wright, C. (2011). Physiotherapy rehabilitation for whiplash associated disorder II: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open, 1, e000265.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Russell, G., & Nicol, P. (2009). ‘I’ve broken my neck or something!’ The general practice experience of whiplash. Family Practice, 26, 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Scholten-Peeters, G., Verhagen, A., Bekkering, G., van der Windt, D., Barnsley, L., Oostendorp, R., et al. (2003). Prognostic factors of whiplash associated disorders: A systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Pain, 104(1–2), 303–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Scott, W., & Sullivan, M. (2012). Perceived injustice moderates the relationship between pain and depressive symptoms among individuals with persistent musculoskeletal pain. Pain Research and Management, 17(5), 335–340.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Soderlund, A., & Lindberg, P. (2001). Cognitive behavioural components in physiotherapy management of chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD)—A randomised group study. Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, 17, 229–238.Google Scholar
  101. Spearing, N., Connelly, L., Gargett, S., & Sterling, M. (2012). Systematic review: Does compensation have a negative effect on health after whiplash? Pain, 153, 1274–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Spitzer, W., Skovron, M., Salmi, L., Cassidy, J., Duranceau, J., Suissa, S., et al. (1995). Scientific Monograph of Quebec Task Force on whiplash associated disorders: Redefining “whiplash” and its management. Spine, 20(8S), 1–73.Google Scholar
  103. Staud, R. (2006). Biology and therapy of fibromyalgia: Pain in fibromyalgia syndrome. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 8, 208.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Steinberg, E., Ovadia, D., Nissan, M., Menahem, A., & Dekel, S. (2005). Whiplash injury: Is there a role for electromyographic studies. Archives of Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery, 125(1), 46–50.Google Scholar
  105. Sterling, M. (2010). Differential development of sensory hypersensitivity and a measure of spinal cord hyperexcitability following whiplash injury. Pain, 150, 501–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sterling, M., Carroll, L., Kasch, H., Kamper, S., & Stemper, B. (2011). Prognosis after whiplash injury: Where to from here? Discussion Paper 3. Spine, 36(25S), s330–s334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Sterling, M., & Chadwick, B. (2010). Psychological processes in daily life with chronic whiplash: Relations of post-traumatic stress symptoms and fear-of-pain to hourly pain and uptime. Clinical Journal of Pain, 26(7), 573–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sterling, M., Hendrikz, J., & Kenardy, J. (2010). Developmental trajectories of pain/disability and PTSD symptoms following whiplash injury. Pain, 150(1), 22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Sterling, M., Hendrikz, J., & Kenardy, J. (2011). Similar factors predict disability and PTSD trajectories following whiplash injury. Pain, 152(6), 1272–1278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sterling, M., Hendrikz, J., Kenardy, J., Kristjansson, E., Dumas, J.-P., Niere, K., et al. (2012). Assessment and validation of prognostic models for poor functional recovery 12 months after whiplash injury: A multicentre inception cohort study. Pain, 153(8), 1727–1734.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Sterling, M., Jull, G., & Kenardy, J. (2006). Physical and psychological predictors of outcome following whiplash injury maintain predictive capacity at long term follow-up. Pain, 122, 102–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sterling, M., Jull, G., Vicenzino, B., & Kenardy, J. (2003). Sensory hypersensitivity occurs soon after whiplash injury and is associated with poor recovery. Pain, 104, 509–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Sterling, M., Jull, G., Vicenzino, B., & Kenardy, J. (2004). Characterisation of acute whiplash associated disorders. Spine, 29(2), 182–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Sterling, M., Jull, G., Vicenzino, B., Kenardy, J., & Darnell, R. (2005). Physical and psychological factors predict outcome following whiplash injury. Pain, 114, 141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Sterling, M., Jull, G., Vizenzino, B., Kenardy, J., & Darnell, R. (2003). Development of motor system dysfunction following whiplash injury. Pain, 103, 65–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Sterling, M., & Kenardy, J. (2006). The relationship between sensory and sympathetic nervous system changes and acute posttraumatic stress following whiplash injury—A prospective study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 60, 387–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sterling, M., Kenardy, J., Jull, G., & Vicenzino, B. (2003). The development of psychological changes following whiplash injury. Pain, 106(3), 481–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Stone, A., & Sterling, M. (2009). Decreased heart rate variability in chronic whiplash is associated with pain, disability, stress and fear of movement but not cold allodynia. Paper presented at the Australian Physiotherapy Conference, Sydney.Google Scholar
  119. Stone, A., Vicenzino, B., Lim, E., & Sterling, M. (2013). Measures of central hyperexcitability in chronic whiplash associated disorder—A systematic review and meta-analysis. Manual Therapy, 18(2), 111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sullivan, M., Adams, H., Horan, S., Mahar, D., Boland, D., & Gross, R. (2008). The role of perceived injustice in the experience of chronic pain and disability: Scale development and validation. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 18, 249–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Sullivan, M., Adams, H., Rhodenizer, T., & Stanish, W. (2006). A psychosocial risk factor—Targeted intervention for the prevention of chronic pain and disability following whiplash injury. Physical Therapy, 86(1), 8–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sullivan, M., Thibault, P., Simmonds, M., Milioto, M., Cantin, A.-P., & Velly, A. (2009). Pain, perceived injustice and the persistence of post-traumatic stress symptoms during the course of rehabilitation for whiplash injuries. Pain, 145(3), 325–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Taylor, J., & Taylor, M. (1996). Cervical spinal injuries: An autopsy study of 109 blunt injuries. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain, 4(4), 61–79.Google Scholar
  124. Tchivilera, I., Lim, P., Smith, S., Slade, G., Diatchenko, L., McLean, S., et al. (2010). Effect of COMT polymorphism on response to propranolol therapy in chronic musculoskeletal pain: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover pilot. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, 20(4), 239–248.Google Scholar
  125. Teasell, R., McClure, J., Walton, D., Pretty, J., Salter, K., Meyer, M., et al. (2010a). A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for WAD: Part 4—Non invasive interventions for chronic WAD. Pain Research and Management, 15(5), 313–322.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Teasell, R., McClure, J., Walton, D., Pretty, J., Salter, K., Meyer, M., et al. (2010b). A research synthesis of therapeutic interventions for whiplash-associated disorder (WAD): Part 2—Interventions for acute WAD. Pain Research and Management, 15(5), 295–304.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. TRACsa. (2008). A clinical pathway for best practice management of acute and chronic whiplash-associated disorders. Adelaide: South Australian Centre for Trauma and Injury Recovery.Google Scholar
  128. Treleaven, J. (2008). Sensorimotor disturbances in neck disorders affecting postural stability, head and eye movement control. Manual Therapy, 13(1), 2–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Treleaven, J., Jull, G., & Low choy, N. (2005). Standing balance in persistent whiplash: A comparison between subjects with and without dizziness. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 224–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Treleaven, J., Jull, G., & LowChoy, N. (2005). Smooth pursuit neck torsion test in whiplash associated disorders: Relationship to self-reports of neck pain and disability, dizziness and anxiety. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 37, 219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Treleaven, J., Jull, G., & Sterling, M. (2003). Dizziness and unsteadiness following whiplash injury—Characteristic features and relationship with cervical joint position error. Journal of Rehabilitation, 34, 1–8.Google Scholar
  132. Van Oosterwijck, J., Nijs, J., Meeus, M., & Paul, L. (2013). Evidence for central sensitization in chronic whiplash: A systematic literature review. European Journal of Pain, 17(3), 299–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Vendrig, A., van Akkerveeken, P., & McWhorter, K. (2000). Results of a multimodal treatment program for patients with chronic symptoms after a whiplash injury of the neck. Spine, 25, 238–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Walburn, J., Vedhara, K., Hankins, M., Rixon, L., & Weinman, J. (2009). Psychological stress and wound healing in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 67, 253–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Walton, D., McDermid, J., Teasell, R., Nielson, W., Reese, H., & Levesque, L. (2011). Pressure pain threshold testing demonstrates predictive ability in people with acute whiplash. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 41(9), 658–665.Google Scholar
  136. Walton, D., Pretty, J., MacDermid, J., & Teasell, R. (2009). Risk factors for persistent problems following whiplash injury: Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 39(5), 334–350.Google Scholar
  137. Williamson, E., Williams, M., Gates, S., & Lamb, S. (2008). A systematic review of psychological factors and the development of late whiplash syndrome. Pain, 135, 20–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wilson, J.-P., & Keane, T. (1997). Assessing psychological trauma and PTSD. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  139. Woodhouse, A., & Vasseljen, O. (2008). Altered motor control patterns in whiplash and chronic neck pain. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 9, 90.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Yoganandan, N., Pintar, F., & Cusick, J. (2002). Biomechanical analyses of whiplash injuries using an experimental model. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 34, 663–671.Google Scholar
  141. Zhu, G., Lipsky, R., & Xu, K. (2004). Differential expression of human COMT alleles in brain and lymphoblasts detected by RT-coupled 5′ nuclease assay. Psychopharmacology, 177, 178–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre of National Research on Disability and Rehabilitation MedicineThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations