Extra-Articular Deformity

  • Arun B. Mullaji
  • Gautam M. Shetty


In most total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) for arthritic knees with intra-articular varus or valgus deformity, both alignment and ligament balance can be achieved with appropriate bone cuts and soft-tissue releases. However, TKA becomes technically challenging when knee arthritis is associated with an extra-articular deformity (EAD) of either the femur or the tibia. Such deformities are commonly caused secondary to trauma (malunion or non-union), previous osteotomy, metabolic causes such as osteomalacia or osteoporosis causing excessive bowing or stress fractures and congenital causes (Fig. 8.1). Stress fracture although uncommon is a frequent cause of tibial EAD in patients with knee arthritis.


Proximal Tibia Tibial Component High Tibial Osteotomy Mechanical Axis Corrective Osteotomy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Arun B. Mullaji
    • 1
  • Gautam M. Shetty
    • 2
  1. 1.Consultant Joint Replacement Surgeon Department of Orthopaedic SurgeryBreach Candy HospitalMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Consultant Arthritis Care and Joint Replacement SurgeryAsian Orthopedic Institute Asian Heart Institute and Research CenterMumbaiIndia

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