Advertisement

Patient-Centered Strategies for Effective Weight Management

  • Kathryn M. KolasaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Although the treatment of both adult and pediatric obesity in primary care is in its infancy, there is a growing base of evidence that patient-centered strategies, used by clinicians alone or in combination with other health-care professionals or community programs, can be effective. This paper presents, using the 5 As framework (Ask, Advise, Agree/Assess, Assist, and Arrange), behavioral strategies that assist patients making lifestyle changes for weight management.

Keywords

Patient-centered strategies 5 As framework Weight management in primary care Patient-centered medical home Goal setting Alternatives to clinic-based weight management Motivational interviewing Behavioral approaches Technology 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We would like to acknowledge Katherine Rickett M.S.L.S., M.S.Ed., for efforts in identifying appropriate literature and in preparation of this manuscript. Katherine is Research Assistant Professor and Liaison Librarian to the Brody School of Medicine, Laupus Library, East Carolina University.

References

  1. 1.
    Surgeon General, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.), Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. Rockville, MD: U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General; 2001.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albright A, Dunn C, Kolasa K, Reeve R, Rhew L, Vodicka S. North Carolina’s plan to address obesity: healthy weight and healthy communities 2013–2020. http://www.eatsmartmovemorenc.com/ESMMPlan/ESMMPlan.html (2013). Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
  3. 3.
    Moyer V, US Preventive Serv Task Force. Screening for and management of obesity in adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(5):373–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kolasa KM. “Images” of nutrition in medical education and primary care. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(6):1006–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kolasa KM, Rickett K. Barriers to providing nutrition counseling cited by physicians: a survey of primary care practitioners. Nutr Clin Pract. 2010;25(5):502–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Manson JE, Skerrett PJ, Greenland P, VanItallie TB. The escalating pandemics of obesity and sedentary lifestyle, a call to action for clinicians. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(3):249–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yanovski SZ. Obesity treatment in primary care–are we there yet? N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):2030–1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wadden TA, Webb VL, Moran CH, Bailer BA. Lifestyle modification for obesity: new developments in diet, physical activity, and behavior therapy. Circulation. 2012;125(9):1157–70.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Appel LJ, Clark JM, Yeh HC, Wang NY, Coughlin JW, Daumit G, Jerome G, Geller S, Noronha G, Pozefsky T, Charleston J, Reynolds JB, Durkin N, Rubin RR, Louis TA, Brancati FI. Comparative effectiveness of weight-loss interventions in clinical practice. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(21):1959–68.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hill JO. Can a small-changes approach help address the obesity epidemic? A report of the Joint Task Force of the American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;89(2):477–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hulscher ME, Wensing M, van Der Weijden T, Grol R. Interventions to implement prevention in primary care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD000362.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Whitlock EP, Orleans CT, Pender N, Allan J. Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions: an evidence-based approach. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(4):267–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alexander SC, Cox ME, Boling Turer CL, Lyna P, Ostbye T, Tulsky JA, Lyna P, Ostbye T, Tulsky JA, Dolor RJ, Pollak KI. Do the five A’s work when physicians counsel about weight loss? Fam Med. 2011;43(3):179–84.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Galani C, Schneider H. Prevention and treatment of obesity with lifestyle interventions: review and meta-analysis. Int J Public Health. 2007;52(6):348–59.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Decision memo for intensive behavioral therapy for obesity (CAG-00423N). http://www.cms.gov/medicare-coverage-database/details/nca-decision-memo.aspx?%26caName=IntensiveBehavioralTherapyforObesity%26bc=ACAAAAAAIAAA%26NCAId=253%26. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schlair S, Moore S, McMacken M, Jay M. How to deliver high-quality obesity counseling in primary care using the 5As framework. J Clin Outcome Manag. 2012;19(5):227.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Institute of Medicine, (U.S.) Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Crossing the quality chasm a new health system for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001. p. R1–22.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stewart M, Brown JB, Donner A, McWhinney IR, Oates J, Weston WW, Jordan J. The impact of patient-centered care on outcomes. J Fam Pract. 2000;49(9):796–804.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Inzucchi SE, Matthews DR, Bergenstal RM, Buse JB, Diamant M, Ferrannini E, Auck M, Peters AL, Tsapas A, Wender R, Matthews DR. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia. 2012;55(6):1577–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirk SFL, Penney TL, McHugh TF, Sharma AM. Effective weight management practice: a review of the lifestyle intervention evidence. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012;36(2):178–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Little P, Everitt H, Williamson I, Warner G, Moore M, Gould C, Ferrier K, Payne S. Preferences of patients for patient centered approach to consultation in primary care: observational study. BMJ. 2001;322(7284):468.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Johnson JL, Johnson SS, Paiva AL, Cummins CO, Dyment SJ, Wright JA, Prochaska JO, Prochaska JM, Sherman K. Transtheoretical Model-based multiple behavior intervention for weight management: Effectiveness on a population basis. Prev Med. 2008;46(3):238–46.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kolasa KM, Craven K, Henes S, Sullivan C. The clinical nutritional implications of obesity and overweight. N C Med J. 2006;67(4):283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jackson GL, Powers BJ, Chatterjee R, Prvu Bettger J, Kemper AR, Hasselblad V, Dolor RJ, Irvine J, Heidenfelder BL, Kendrick AS, Gray R, Williams Jr JW. The patient-centered medical home: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2013;158(3):169–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosal MC, Ebbeling CB, Lofgren I, Ockene JK, Ockene IS, Hebert JR. Facilitating dietary change: the patient-centered counseling model. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101(3):332–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carraway ME, Di Natale EK, Lutes LD. Theories of behavior change. In: Bushman BA et al., editors. ACSM’s resources for the personal trainer. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lutes LD, Daiss SR, Barger SD, Read M, Steinbaugh E, Winett RA. Small changes approach promotes initial and continued weight loss with a phone-based follow-up: nine-month outcomes from ASPIRES II. Am J Health Promot. 2012;26(4):235–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Sciamanna CN, DePue JD, Goldstein MG, Park ER, Gans KM, Monroe AD, Reiss PT. Nutrition Counseling in the Promoting Cancer Prevention in Primary Care Study. Prev Med. 2002;35(5):437–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldstein MG, Whitlock EP, DePue J, Planning Comm Addressing Multiple, Planning Committee of the Addressing Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors in Primary Care Project. Multiple behavioral risk factor interventions in primary care. Summary of research evidence. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(2 Suppl):61–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dosh SA, Holtrop JS, Torres T, Arnold AK, Baumann J, White LL. Changing organizational constructs into functional tools: an assessment of the 5 A’s in primary care practices. Ann Fam Med. 2005;3 Suppl 2:S50–2.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jay M, Gillespie C, Schlair S, Sherman S, Kalet A. Physicians’ use of the 5As in counseling obese patients: is the quality of counseling associated with patients’ motivation and intention to lose weight? BMC Health Serv Res. 2010;10(1):159–62.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Whitlock EP, O’Connor EA, Williams SB, Beil TL, Lutz KW. Effectiveness of weight management interventions in children: a targeted systematic review for the USPSTF. Pediatrics. 2010;125(2):e396–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rao G, Burke L, Spring B, Ewing L, Turk M, Lichtenstein A, Cornier M-A, Spence JD, Coons M, The American Heart Association Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Nursing, Council on the Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, and Stroke Council. New and emerging weight management strategies for busy ambulatory settings a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2011;124(10):1182–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Strayer SM, Martindale JR, Pelletier SL, Rais S, Powell J, Schorling JB. Development and evaluation of an instrument for assessing brief behavioral change interventions. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;83(1):99–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gudzune KA, Clark JM, Appel LJ, Bennett WL. Primary care providers’ communication with patients during weight counseling: a focus group study. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;89(1):152–7.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Taft NA, Collier DN, Kolasa KM. Applying childhood obesity and cardiovascular health risk reduction guidelines: family-centered nutrition interventions. Nutr Tod. 2012;47(5):229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Scott JG, Cohen D, DiCicco-Bloom B, Orzano AJ, Gregory P, Flocke SA, Maxwell BS, Crabtree B. Speaking of weight: how patients and primary care clinicians initiate weight loss counseling. Prev Med. 2004;38(6):819–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Sciamanna C, Novak S, Houston T, Gramling R, Marcus B. Visit satisfaction and tailored health behavior communications in primary care. Am J Prev Med. 2004;26(5):426–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kolasa KM, Collier DN, Cable K. Weight loss strategies that really work. J Fam Pract. 2010;59(7):378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wee CC, Davis RB, Phillips RS. Stage of readiness to control weight and adopt weight control behaviors in primary care. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(5):410–5.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sutton K, Logue E, Jarjoura D, Baughman K, Smucker W, Capers C. Assessing dietary and exercise stage of change to optimize weight loss interventions. Obes Res. 2003;11(5):641–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kong W, Langlois M, Kamga-Ngandé C, Gagnon C, Brown C, Baillargeon J. Predictors of success to weight-loss intervention program in individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;90(2):147–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(5):367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pignone M, Ammerman A, Fernandez L, Orleans C, Pender N, Woolf S, Lohr KN, Sutton S. Counseling to promote a healthy diet in adults—a summary of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(1):75–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cresci B, Castellini G, Pala L, Ravaldi C, Faravelli C, Rotella C, Ricca A. Motivational readiness for treatment in weight control programs: The TREatment MOtivation and Readiness (TRE-MORE) test. J Endocrinol Invest. 2011;34(3):E70–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Simkin-Silverman LR, Gleason KA, King WC, Weissfeld LA, Buhari A, Boraz MA, Wing RR. Predictors of weight control advice in primary care practices: patient health and psychosocial characteristics. Prev Med. 2005;40(1):71–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Emmons KM, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing in health care settings. Opportunities and limitations. Am J Prev Med. 2001;20(1):68–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zitkus BS. The relationship among registered nurses’ weight status, weight loss regimens, and successful or unsuccessful weight loss. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2011;23(2):110–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tate DF, Turner-McGrievy G, Lyons E, Stevens J, Erickson K, Polzien K, Diamond M, Wang X, Popkin B. Replacing caloric beverages with water or diet beverages for weight loss in adults: main results of the Choose Healthy Options Consciously Everyday (CHOICE) randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(3):555.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Miller CK, Kristeller JL, Headings A, Nagaraja H, Miser WF. Comparative effectiveness of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(11):1835.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Whetstone LM, Lackey C, Kolasa KM, Dunn C, Jayaratne KSU, Vodicka S, Schneider L, Thomas C, van Staveren M, Aggarwal S, Lackey C. Effects of a behavior-based weight management program delivered through a state cooperative extension and local public health department network, North Carolina, 2008–2009. Prev Chronic Dis. 2011;8(4):A81. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2011/jul/10_0160.htm.
  52. 52.
    Carroll S, Borkoles E, Polman R. Short-term effects of a non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on weight management, fitness, metabolic risk, and psychological well-being in obese premenopausal females with the metabolic syndrome. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2007;32:125–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kroeze W, Werkman A, Brug J. A systematic review of randomized trials on the effectiveness of computer-tailored education on physical activity and dietary behaviors. Ann Behav Med. 2006;31(3):205–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Neville LM, O’Hara B, Milat AJ. Computer-tailored dietary behaviour change interventions: a systematic review. Health Educ Res. 2009;24(4):699–720.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Pearson ES. Goal setting as a health behavior change strategy in overweight and obese adults: a systematic literature review examining intervention components. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;87(1):32–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cullen KW, Baranowski T, Smith SP. Using goal setting as a strategy for dietary behavior change. J Am Diet Assoc. 2001;101(5):562–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ellingwood E. SMART goals: overview and template. http://www.collaborateforhealthyweight.org/Resources/2011/11/21/SMART-Goals-Overview-and-Template.aspx. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
  58. 58.
    Constance A, Sauter C, American Dietetic Association. Inspiring and supporting behavior change: a food and nutrition professional’s counseling guide. Chicago, IL: American Dietetic Association; 2011.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eaton CB, McBride PE, Gans KA, Underbakke GL. Teaching nutrition skills to primary care practitioners. J Nutr. 2003;133(2):563S–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Calfas KJ, Long BJ, Sallis JF, Wooten WJ, Pratt M, Patrick K. A controlled trial of physician counseling to promote the adoption of physical activity. Prev Med. 1996;25(3):225–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Flocke SA, Stange KC. Direct observation and patient recall of health behavior advice. Prev Med. 2004;38(3):343–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lin JS, O’Connor E, Whitlock EP, Beil TL. Behavioral counseling to promote physical activity and a healthful diet to prevent cardiovascular disease in adults: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153(11):736–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Huang J, Yu H, Marin E, Brock S, Carden D, Davis T. Physicians’ weight loss counseling in two public hospital primary care clinics. Acad Med. 2004;79(2):156–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Weedn A, Darden P, Gillaspy S. Childhood obesity management in primary care: highlights from the 2007 Expert Committee recommendations. J Okla State Med Assoc. 2011;104(7–8):303–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wadden TA, Volger S, Sarwer DB, Vetter ML, Tsai AG, Berkowitz RI, Kumanyika S, Schmitz KH, Diewald LK, Barg R, Chittams J, Moore RH. A two-year randomized trial of obesity. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1969–79.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wadden TA, Neiberg RH, Wing RR, Clark JM, Delahanty LM, Hill JO, Krakoff J, Otto A, Ryan HD, Vitolins MZ, The Look AHEAD Research Group. Four-year weight losses in the Look AHEAD study: factors associated with long-term success. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19(10):1987–98.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pratt KJ, Lamson AL, Lazorick S, Swanson MS, Cravens J, Collier DN. A biopsychosocial pilot study of overweight youth and care providers’ perceptions of quality of life. J Pediatr Nurs. 2011;26(6):e61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Henes S, Collier D, Morrissey S, Cummings D, Kolasa K. Medical nutrition therapy for overweight youth in their medical home: the KIDPOWER experience. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;81(1):43–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Silberberg M, Carter-Edwards L, Murphy G, Mayhew M, Kolasa K, Perrin EM, Armstrong S, Graham C, Menon MN. Treating pediatric obesity in the primary care setting to prevent chronic disease: perceptions and knowledge of providers and staff. N C Med J. 2012;73(1):9.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tsai AG, Wadden TA. Treatment of obesity in primary care practice in the United States: a systematic review. J Gen Intern Med. 2009;24(9):1073–9.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Greaney ML, Quintiliani LM, Warner ET, King DK, Emmons KM, Colditz GA, Glascow RE, Bennett GG. Weight management among patients at community health centers: the “Be Fit, Be Well” Study. Obes Weight Manag. 2009;5(5):222–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ma J, Yank V, Xiao L, Lavori PW, Wilson SR, Rosas LG, Stafford RS. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention for weight loss into primary care. Arch Intern Med. 2013;173(2):113–21. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.987.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jay M, Schlair S, Caldwell R, Kalet A, Sherman S, Gillespie C. From the patient’s perspective: the impact of training on resident physician’s obesity counseling. J Gen Intern Med. 2010;25(5):415–22.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fismer K, Watts S, Bradbury K, Lewith G. Investigating a multidisciplinary and patient-centered approach to obesity. Eur J Integr Med. 2012;4(2):E219–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jolly K, Lewis A, Beach J, Denley J, Adab P, Deeks J, Daley A, Aveyard P. Comparison of range of commercial or primary care led weight reduction with minimal intervention control for weight loss in obesity: lighten up randomised controlled trial. Br Med J. 2011;343:d500. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d6500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jakicic JM, Tate DF, Lang W, Davis KK, Polzien K, Rickman AD, Erickson K, Neiberg RH, Finkelstein EA. Effect of a stepped-care intervention approach on weight loss in adults. JAMA; 2012;307(24):2617.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pellegrini CA, Verba SD, Otto AD, Helsel DL, Davis KK, Jakicic JM. The comparison of a technology-based system and an in-person behavioral weight loss intervention. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(2):356–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Bennett GG, Herring SJ, Puleo E, Stein EK, Emmons KM, Gillman MW. Web-based weight loss in primary care: a randomized controlled trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2010;18(2):308–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wieland LS, Falzon L, Sciamanna CN, Trudeau KJ, Brodney S, Schwartz JE, Davidson KW. Interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;8(8):CD007675.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hersey JC, Kish-Doto J, Koch MA, Munoz B, Peele E, Stockdale J, Augustine C, Mitchell G, Arday D, Kugler J, Dorn P, Ellzy J, Julian R, Grissom J, Britt M. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a community weight management intervention: a randomized controlled trial of the health weight management demonstration. Prev Med. 2012;54(1):42–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Blackburn GL. Weight of the nation: moving forward, reversing the trend using medical care. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96(5):949–50.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Riley WT. Leveraging technology for multiple risk factor interventions. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(10):796–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Spring B, Schneider K, McFadden HG, Vaughn J, Kozak AT, Smith M, Moller AC, Epstein LH, DeMott A, Hedeker D, Siddique J, Lloyd-Jones DM. Multiple behavior changes in diet and activity: a randomized controlled trial using mobile technology. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(10):789–96.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Radcliff TA, Bobroff LB, Lutes LD, Durning PE, Daniels MJ, Limacher MC, Janicke DM, Martin D, Perri G. Comparing costs of telephone vs face-to-face extended-care programs for the management of obesity in rural settings. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(9):1363.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bennett GG, Warner ET, Glasgow RE, Askew S, Goldman J, Ritzwoller DP, Emmons KM, Rosner BA, Colditz GA, Be Fit Be Well Study Investigators. Obesity treatment for socioeconomically disadvantaged patients in primary care practice. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(7):565–74.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Shapiro JR, Koro T, Doran N, Thompson S, Sallis JF, Calfas K, Patrick K. Text4Diet: a randomized controlled study using text messaging for weight loss behaviors. Prev Med. 2012;55(5):412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Dunn C, Whetstone LM, Kolasa KM, Jayaratne KSU, Thomas C, Aggarwal S, Herget C, Rogers AB. Delivering a behavior-change weight management program to teachers and state employees in north Carolina. Am J Health Promot. 2013;27(6):378–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Elluminate Live!: Elluminate. http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Collaborate/Overview.aspx. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
  89. 89.
    Pinto AM, Fava JL, Hoffmann DA, Wing RR. Combining behavioral weight loss treatment and a commercial program: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity. 2013;21(4):673–80. doi: 10.1002/oby.20044.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gokee-Larose J, Gorin AA, Raynor HA, Laska MN, Jeffery RW, Levy RL, Wing RR. Are standard behavioral weight loss programs effective for young adults? Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33(12):1374–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Roberts SB, Krebs N. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic? Adv Nutr. 2012;3(5):730–1.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Osei-Assibey G, Kyrou I, Adi Y, Kumar S, Matyka K. Dietary and lifestyle interventions for weight management in adults from minority ethnic/non-White groups: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2010;11(11):769–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Armstrong MJ, Mottershead TA, Ronksley PE, Sigal RJ, Campbell TS, Hemmelgarn BR. Motivational interviewing to improve weight loss in overweight and/or obese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev. 2011;12(9):709–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Burke BL, Arkowitz H, Menchola M. The efficacy of motivational interviewing: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2003;71(5):843–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Pollack KI, Alexander SC, Coffman CJ, Tulsky JA, Lyna P, Dolor RJ, James IE, Namenek Brouwer RJ, Manusov JRE, Ostbye T. Physician communication techniques and weight loss in adults. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(4):321–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    West DS, DiLillo V, Bursac A, Gore SA, Greene PA. Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(5):1081–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mhurchu CN, Margetts BM, Speller V. Randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of two dietary interventions for patients with hyperlipidaemia. Clin Sci. 1998;95:479–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Carels RA, Darby L, Cacciapaglia HM, Konrad K, Coit C, Harper J, Kaplar ME, Young K, Baylen CA, Versland A. Using motivational interviewing as a supplement to obesity treatment: a stepped-care approach. Health Psychol. 2007;26(3):369–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    VanWormer JJ, Boucher JL. Motivational interviewing and diet modification: a review of the evidence. Diabetes Educ. 2004;30(3):404–19. http://www.blackboard.com/Platforms/Collaborate/Overview.aspx. Accessed 19 Feb 2014.
  100. 100.
    DiLillo V, West DS. Motivational interviewing for weight loss. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2011;34(4):861–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    DiMarco ID, Klein DA, Clark VL, Wilson GT. The use of motivational interviewing techniques to enhance the efficacy of guided self-help behavioral weight loss treatment. Eat Behav. 2009;10(2):134–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Anshel MH, Kang M. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing on changes in fitness, blood lipids, and exercise adherence of police officers: an outcome-based action study. J Correct Health Care. 2008;14:48–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    McDoniel SO, Wolskee P, Shen J. Treating obesity with a novel hand-held device, computer software program, and internet technology in primary care: the SMART motivational trial. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;79(2):185–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gulbrandsen P, Østbye T, Lyna P, Dolor RJ, Tulsky JA, Alexander SC, Pollak KI. The influence of physician communication style on overweight patients’ perceptions of length of encounter and physician being rushed. Fam Med. 2012;44(3):183–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Rohrer JE, Bartel G, Wade T, Yapuncich V. A patient-centered approach to weight management coaching. Obes Manag. 2008;4(1):27–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schwartz RP, Hamre R, Dietz WH, Wasserman RC, Slora EJ, Myers EF, Sullivan S, Rockett H, Thoma KA, Dumitru G, Resnicow KA. Office-based motivational interviewing to prevent childhood obesity. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007;161(5):495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Schwartz RP. Motivational interviewing (patient-centered counseling) to address childhood obesity. Pediatr Ann. 2010;39(3):154–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rollnick S, Miller WR, Butler CC. Motivational interviewing in health care: helping patients change behavior. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 2007.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Family Medicine and PediatricsBrody School of Medicine at East Carolina UniversityGreenvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations