Advertisement

Developing Social Competence Through a Resilience Model

  • Mary K. Alvord
  • Brendan A. Rich
  • Lisa H. Berghorst
Chapter
Part of the The Springer Series on Human Exceptionality book series (SSHE)

Abstract

Social deficits are ubiquitous across childhood psychopathology, and impaired social functioning in childhood is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes throughout youth and into adulthood. In contrast, social competence, a key component of resilience, is associated with multiple positive outcomes. In this chapter, we discuss the nature of childhood resilience and how psychotherapeutic interventions may enhance resilience. The primary components of resilience, including proactive orientation, self-regulation, connections and attachments, special interests and talents, community, and proactive parenting, are reviewed. We then describe the Resilience Builder Program® (RBP®), a comprehensive resilience-based manualized group therapy for children and adolescents with prominent social competence deficits. Finally, we discuss efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of the RBP® in a private clinical practice, and we present pilot data in youth with ADHD, anxiety, and autism spectrum disorders.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder Anxiety Disorder Social Competence Social Deficit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aduen, P., Rich, B. A., Sanchez, L., O’Brien, K., & Alvord, M. K. (in press). Resilience Builder Program therapy addresses core social deficits in youth with high functioning autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Psychological Abnormalities in Children.Google Scholar
  2. Alvord, M. K., & Grados, J. J. (2005). Enhancing resilience in children: A proactive approach. Professional Psychology, 36(3), 238–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvord, M. K., & O’Leary, K. D. (1985). Teaching children to share through stories. Psychology in the Schools, 22, 323–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvord, M. K., Zucker, B., & Alvord, B. (2011). Relaxation and self-regulation techniques for children and teens: Mastering the mind-body connection [Audio CD]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  5. Alvord, M. K., Zucker, B., & Alvord, B. (2013). Relaxation and wellness techniques: Mastering the mind-body connection [Audio CD]. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  6. Alvord, M. K., Zucker, B., & Grados, J. J. (2011). Resilience Builder Program: Enhancing social competence and self-regulation. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  7. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2000). Clinical practice guidelines: Diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 105, 1158–1170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. American Psychological Association, Task Force on Resilience and Strength in Black Children and Adolescents. (2008). Resilience in African American children and adolescents: A vision for optimal development. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Armstrong, M. I., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., & Ungar, M. T. (2005). Pathways between social support, family well being, quality of parenting, and child resilience: What we know. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(2), 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aschenbrand, S. G., Kendall, P. C., Webb, A., Safford, S. M., & Flannery-Schroeder, E. (2003). Is childhood separation anxiety disorder a predictor of adult panic disorder and agoraphobia? A seven-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1478–1485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  12. Barkley, R. A. (2006). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Baumrind, D. (1991). Effective parenting during the early adolescent transition. In P. A. Cowan & M. Hetherington (Eds.), Family transitions (pp. 111–163). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  14. Bierman, K. L. (2004). Peer rejection. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., Chiappetta, L., Bridge, J., Monga, S., & Baugher, M. (1999). Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): A replication study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(10), 1230–1236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Borden, L. A., Schultz, T. R., Herman, K. C., & Brooks, C. M. (2010). The Incredible Years Parent Training Program: Promoting resilience through evidence-based prevention groups. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research and Practice, 14(3), 230–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowman, P. J. (2013). A strengths-based social psychological approach to resiliency: Cultural diversity, ecological, and life span issues. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 299–324). New York: Springer New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks, R. (1994). Children at risk: Fostering resilience and hope. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 64, 545–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Calkins, S. D., & Marcovitch, S. (2010). Emotion regulation and executive functioning in early development: Integrated mechanisms of control supporting adaptive functioning. In S. D. Calkins & M. A. Bell (Eds.), Child development at the intersection of emotion and cognition (APA human brain development series, pp. 37–57). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cartwright-Hatton, S., Tschernitz, N., & Gomersall, H. (2005). Social anxiety in children: Social skills deficit, or cognitive distortion? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 131–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chansky, T. E., & Kendall, P. C. (1997). Social expectancies and self-perceptions in anxiety- disordered children. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 347–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Clark, D. M., & McManus, F. (2002). Information processing in social phobia. Biological Psychiatry, 51, 92–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cohn, M. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Brown, S. L., Mikels, J. A., & Conway, A. M. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Costello, E., Mustillo, S., Erkanli, A., Keeler, G., & Angold, A. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence. Archive of General Psychiatry, 60(8), 837–844.Google Scholar
  25. Crawford, A. M., & Manassis, K. (2011). Anxiety, social skills, friendship quality, and peer victimization: An integrated model. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 924–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cunningham, C. E. (2007). A family-centered approach to planning and measuring the outcome of interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 676–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. de Boo, G. M., & Prins, P. J. M. (2007). Social incompetence in children with ADHD: Possible moderators and mediators in social-skills training. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(1), 78–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Derogatis, L. R., & Melisaratos, N. (1983). The brief symptom inventory: An introductory report. Psychological Medicine, 13, 595–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dishion, T. J., McCord, J., & Poulin, F. (1999). When interventions harm: Peer groups and problem behaviors. American Psychologist, 54, 755–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dishion, T. J., & Tipsord, J. M. (2011). Peer contagion in child and adolescent social and emotional development. Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 189–214.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ehrenreich-May, J., Southam-Gerow, M. A., Hourigan, S. E., Wright, L. R., Pincus, D. B., & Weisz, J. R. (2011). Characteristics of anxious and depressed youth seen in two different clinical contexts. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 38, 398–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Epstein, N. B., Baldwin, L. M., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). The McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 9(2), 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Faraone, S. V., Biederman, J., Lehman, B. K., Spencer, T., Norman, D., Seidman, L. J., et al. (1993). Intellectual performance and school failure in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and in their siblings. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 616–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fenning, R. M., & Baker, J. K. (2012). Mother-child interaction and resilience in children with early developmental risk. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(3), 411–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fletcher, D., & Sarkar, M. (2013). Psychological resilience: A review and critique of definitions, concepts, and theory. European Psychologist, 18(1), 12–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fletcher, J., & Wolfe, B. (2008). Child mental health and human capital accumulation: The case of ADHD revisited. Journal of Health Economics, 27, 794–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Foster, S. L., & Bussman, J. R. (2008). Evidence-based approaches to social skills training with children and adolescents. In R. G. Steele, T. D. Elkin, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Handbook of evidence-based therapies for children and adolescents: Bridging science and practice. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Ginsburg, G. S., La Greca, A. M., & Silverman, W. K. (1998). Social anxiety in children with anxiety disorders: Relation with social and emotional functioning. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 175–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Goldstein, A. P., & Martens, B. K. (2000). Lasting change. Champaign, IL: Research Press.Google Scholar
  40. Gresham, F. M., Elliott, S. N., Cook, C. R., Vance, M. J., & Kettler, R. (2010). Cross-informant agreement for ratings for social skill and problem behavior ratings: An investigation of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales. Psychological Assessment, 22, 157–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gunderson, E. A., Gripshover, S. J., Romero, C., Dweck, C. S., Goldin-Meadow, S., & Levine, S. C. (2013). Parent praise to 1- to 3-year-olds predicts children’s motivational frameworks 5 years later. Child Development. Advance online publication. doi:  10.1111/cdev.12064.
  42. Hill, N. E. (2012). Parent-child and child-peer close relationships: Understanding parental influences on peer relations from a cultural context. In L. Campbell & T. J. Loving (Eds.), Interdisciplinary child research on close relationships: The case for integration (pp. 109–134). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hirsch, C. R., Clark, D. M., Mathews, A., & Williams, R. (2003). Self-images play a causal role in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 909–921.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hoza, B., Mrug, S., Gerdes, A. C., Hinshaw, S. P., Bukowski, W. M., Gold, J. A., et al. (2005). What aspects of peer relationships are impaired in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 411–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hoza, B., Pelham, W. E., Waschbusch, D. A., Kipp, H., & Owens, J. S. (2001). Academic task persistence of normally achieving ADHD and control boys: Performance, self-evaluations, and attributions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hutchinson, J., & Pretelt, V. (2010). Building resources and resilience: Why we should think about positive emotions when working with children, their families and their schools. Counselling Psychology Review, 25, 20–27.Google Scholar
  47. Kendall, P. C. (Ed.). (2006). Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures (3rd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kim, S. Y., Chen, Q., Wang, Y., Shen, Y., & Orozco-Lapray, D. (2013). Longitudinal linkages among parent-child acculturation discrepancy, parenting, parent-child sense of alienation, and adolescent adjustment in Chinese immigrant families. Developmental Psychology, 49(5), 900–912.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuhnle, C., Hofer, M., & Killian, B. (2012). Self-control as predictor of school grades, life balance, and flow in adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 533–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. La Greca, A. M., & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 83–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lee, T. Y., Kwong, W. M., Cheung, C. K., Ungar, M., & Cheung, M. Y. (2010). Children’s resilience-related beliefs as a predictor of positive child development in the face of adversities: Implications for interventions to enhance children’s quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 95(3), 437–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder, and adaptation (2nd ed., pp. 739–795). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  53. Luthar, S. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2000). The construct of resilience: Implications for interventions and social policies. Development and Psychopathology, 12(4), 857–885.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Masten, A. S., & Coatsworth, J. D. (1998). The development of competence in favorable and unfavorable environments: Lessons on successful children. American Psychologist, 53, 205–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Masten, A. S., & Wright, M. O. (2010). Resilience over the lifespan: Developmental perspectives on resistance, recovery, and transformation. In J. W. Reich, A. J. Zautra, & J. S. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of adult resilience (pp. 213–237). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  56. Meichenbaum, D. (2012). Roadmap to resilience: A guide for military, trauma victims and their families. Clearwater, FL: Institute Press.Google Scholar
  57. Mikami, A. Y. (2010). The importance of friendship for youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(2), 181–198.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Miller, I. W., Epstein, N. B., Bishop, D. S., & Keitner, G. I. (1985). The McMaster family assessment device: Reliability and validity. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 11, 345–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., et al. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. PNAS: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(7), 2693–2698.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Muris, P., Merckelbach, H., & Damsma, E. (2000). Threat perception bias in nonreferred, socially anxious children. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 29, 348–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Norvilitis, J. M., Casey, R. J., Brooklier, K. M., & Bonello, P. J. (2000). Emotional appraisal in children with Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and their parents. Journal of Attention Disorders, 4, 15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Parker, J., & Asher, S. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: are low-accepted children at risk?. Psychological Bulletin, 102(3), 357–389.Google Scholar
  63. Pincus, D. (2001). I can relax! [Audio CD]. Boston: Psychzone.Google Scholar
  64. Prince-Embury, S. (2007). Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents: A profile of personal strengths. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.Google Scholar
  65. Prince-Embury, P. (2013). Translating resilience theory for assessment and application with children, adolescents, and adults: Conceptual issues. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 139–150). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rabiner, D. L., Cole, J. D., Miller-Johnson, S., Boykin, A. M., & Lochman, J. E. (2005). Predicting the persistence of aggressive offending of African American males from adolescence into young adulthood: The importance of peer relations, aggressive behavior, and ADHD symptoms. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 13(3), 131–140.Google Scholar
  67. Reynolds, C. R., & Kamphaus, R. W. (2004). Behavior assessment system for children. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.Google Scholar
  68. Rich, B. A., Hensler, M., Rosen, H. R., Watson, C., Schmidt, J., Sanchez, L., et al. (in press). Attrition from therapy effectiveness research among youth in a clinical service setting. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. doi: 10.1007/s10488-013-0469-5.
  69. Rich, B. A., Nigro, C., Watson, C., Rosen, H. J., Sanchez, L., & Alvord, M. K. (2014). Improved functioning in youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder following treatment with the Resilience Builder Program in a clinical service setting. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  70. Robins, A., Schneider, M., & Dolnick, M. (1977). The turtle technique: An extended study of self-control in the classroom. In K.D. O’Leary & S.G. O’Leary (Eds.), Classroom Management: The successful use of behavior modification (2nd ed., pp. 307–313). New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  71. Romer, N., Ravitch, N. K., Tom, K., Merrell, K. W., & Wesley, K. L. (2011). Gender differences in positive social-emotional functioning. Psychology in the Schools, 48(10), 958–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rubin, K. H., Root, A. K., & Bowker, J. (2010). Parents, peers, and social withdrawal in childhood: A relationship perspective. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 2010, 79–94.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Rutter, M. (1985). Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 147(1), 598–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Scharfstein, L., Alfano, C., Beidel, D., & Wong, N. (2011). Children with generalized anxiety disorder do not have peer problems, just fewer friends. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 42, 712–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Schoenwald, S. K., & Hoagwood, K. (2001). Effectiveness, transportability, and dissemination of interventions: What matters when? Psychiatric Services, 52(9), 1190–1197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schwarzer, R., & Warner, L. M. (2013). Perceived self-efficacy and its relationship to resilience. In S. Prince-Embury & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.), Resilience in children, adolescents, and adults: Translating research into practice (pp. 139–150). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Scime, M., & Norvilitis, J. M. (2006). Task performance and response to frustration in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 377–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Seligman, M. E. P., Reivich, K., Jaycox, L., & Gillham, J. (1995). The optimistic child. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  79. Southam-Gerow, M. A., Ringeisen, H. L., & Sherrill, J. T. (2006). Integrating interventions and services research: Progress and prospects. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 13, 1–8.Google Scholar
  80. Southam-Gerow, M. A., Rodriguez, A., Chorpita, B. F., & Daleiden, E. L. (2012). Dissemination and implementation of evidence based treatments for youth: Challenges and recommendations. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43, 527–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Southam-Gerow, M. A., Weisz, J. R., Chu, B. C., McLeod, B. D., Gordis, E. B., & Connor-Smith, J. K. (2010). Does cognitive behavioral therapy for youth anxiety outperform usual care in community clinics? An initial effectiveness test. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49, 1043–1052.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Spence, S. H., Donovan, C., & Brechman-Toussaint, M. (1999). Social skills, social outcomes, and cognitive features of childhood social phobia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 211–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Strauss, C. C., Frame, C. L., & Forehand, R. (1987). Psychosocial impairment associated with anxiety in children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 16, 235–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2012). Mental health United States 2010. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  85. Tuschen-Caffier, B., Kuhl, S., & Bender, C. (2011). Cognitive-evaluative features of childhood social anxiety in a performance task. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Verduin, T. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2003). Differential occurrence of comorbidity within childhood anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 290–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Verduin, T. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). Peer perceptions and liking of children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 459–469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Walcott, C. M., & Landau, S. (2004). The relation between disinhibition and emotion regulation in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 33, 772–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Walden, T. A., Harris, V. S., & Catron, T. F. (2003). How I feel: A self-report measure of emotional arousal and regulation for children. Psychological Assessment, 15, 399–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Walsh, F. (2006). Strengthening family resilience (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  91. Watson, C., Rich, B. A., Sanchez, L., O’Brien, K., & Alvord, M. K. (in press). Effectiveness of resilience-based group therapy for improving the functioning of anxious children. Child and Youth Care Forum.Google Scholar
  92. Wehmeier, P. M., Schacht, A., & Barkley, R. A. (2010). Social and emotional impairment in children and adolescents with ADHD and the impact on quality of life. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46, 209–217.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Weisz, J. R., Chorpita, B. F., Palinkas, L. A., Schoenwald, S. K., Miranda, J., Bearman, S. K., et al. (2012). Testing standard and modular designs for psychotherapy treating depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in youth. Archives of General Psychiatry, 69(3), 274–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Weisz, J. R., Doss, A. J., & Hawley, K. M. (2005). Youth psychotherapy outcome research: A review and critique of the evidence base. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 56, 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Weisz, J. R., Southam-Gerow, M. A., Gordis, E. B., & Connor-Smith, J. K. (2003). Primary and secondary control enhancement training for youth depression: Applying the deployment-focused model of treatment development and testing. In A. E. Kazdin & J. R. Weisz (Eds.), Evidence-based treatments for children and adolescents (pp. 165–183). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  96. Werner, E. E. (2013). What can we learn about resilience from large-scale longitudinal studies? In S. Goldstein & R. Brooks (Eds.), Handbook of resilience in children (2nd ed., pp. 87–104). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (2001). Journeys from childhood to midlife. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Wigal, T., Swanson, J. M., Douglas, V. I., Wigal, S. B., Wippler, C. M., & Cavoto, K. F. (1998). Effect of reinforcement on facial responsivity and persistence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Modification, 22, 143–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wolraich, M. L., Hannah, J. N., Baumgaertel, A., & Feurer, I. D. (1998). Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a county-wide sample. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 162–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Woodward, L. J., & Fergusson, D. M. (2001). Life course outcomes of young people with anxiety disorders in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 1086–1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Ziv, Y. (2013). Social information processing patterns, social skills, and school readiness in preschool children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 114(2), 306–320.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary K. Alvord
    • 1
  • Brendan A. Rich
    • 2
  • Lisa H. Berghorst
    • 1
  1. 1.Alvord, Baker & Associates, LLCRockvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyCatholic University of AmericaWashington, DCUSA

Personalised recommendations