Women, Reform, and Medical Leadership

  • Jonathan Davidson


Tribute is due to many courageous women who graduated from the homeopathic system. Clemence Lozier established the first women’s medical school. Several graduates, such as Anna Shaw, became involved in the suffrage movement. Others improved professional opportunities for women in medicine, including Emily Stowe and Maria Estrella; Laura Towne, Susan McKinney Steward, and Martha Ripley fought for better health for women and blacks. In Boston, Harriet Clisby set up the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union (WEIU) which attained stature nationally for its welfare programs. Julia Holmes Smith and Leila Bedell introduced reforms for women in the Chicago. Others were innovators in particular treatments such as twilight sleep.


Female Physician Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Female Doctor York Medical College Female Surgeon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan Davidson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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