Parathyroid hyperplasia accounts for 15 % of primary hyperparathyroidism cases, with parathyroid adenoma accounting for 80–85 % and carcinoma 0.5–2 %. The incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism increased in the early 1970s with the introduction of automatic screening serum calcium. Patients today may be asymptomatic or have weakness or lethargy, but nephrocalcinosis and osteopenia are much less common. Primary parathyroid hyperplasia is an absolute increase in parathyroid parenchymal mass involving multiple parathyroid glands in the absence of a recognized stimulus for parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. The etiology of sporadic primary parathyroid hyperplasia is unclear. The most common causes of hereditary hyperparathyroidism include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 and 2A, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, hyperparathyroidism–jaw tumor syndrome (HP-JT), neonatal severe primary hyperparathyroidism, and familial isolated hyperparathyroidism.
KeywordsToxicity Adenoma Hyperparathyroidism Hypercalcemia Rickets
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