Advertisement

Parathyroid Histology

  • Lori A. Erickson
Chapter
Part of the Atlas of Anatomic Pathology book series (AAP)

Abstract

Parathyroid glands are derived from the endodermal third and fourth branchial pouches and are involved in the regulation of serum calcium and bone metabolism. Calcium-sensing receptors on the surface of parathyroid cells sense serum calcium levels. When serum calcium levels are low, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted. Most individuals have four parathyroid glands, but 5–13 % have five or more and 2 % have fewer than four parathyroid glands. Normal parathyroid glands measure 3–6 mm in length, 2–4 mm in width, and 0.5–2 mm in thickness. Normal parathyroid glands each weigh 20–40 mg; those weighing more than 50–60 mg usually are abnormal. Parathyroid glands are composed of parathyroid parenchymal cells and adipocytes. Stromal fat constitutes 10–30 % of normal parathyroid glands

References

  1. 1.
    DeLellis RA. Tumors of the parathyroid gland. In: Rosai J, Sobin LH, editors. Atlas of tumor pathology, vol. 6. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1993. p. 102.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akerstrom G, Malmaeus J, Bergstrom R. Surgical anatomy of human parathyroid glands. Surgery. 1984;95(1):14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lappas D, et al. Location, number and morphology of parathyroid glands: results from a large anatomical series. Anat Sci Int. 2012;87(3):160–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Castleman B, Mallory TB. The pathology of the parathyroid gland in hyperparathyroidism. A study of 25 cases. Am J Pathol. 1935;X(1):1–72.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castleman B, Roth SI. Tumors of the parathyroid glands, Atlas of tumor pathology, vol. 14. Washington, DC: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1978.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cappelli C, et al. Prevalence of parathyroid cysts by neck ultrasound scan in unselected patients. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32(4):357–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Calandra DB, et al. Parathyroid cysts: a report of eleven cases including two associated with hyperparathyroid crisis. Surgery. 1983;94(6):887–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sung JY, et al. Symptomatic nonfunctioning parathyroid cysts: role of simple aspiration and ethanol ablation. Eur J Radiol. 2013;82(2):316–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Glynn N, et al. Multiple functional parathyroid cysts. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98(7):2641–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bondeson AG, Bondeson L, Ljungberg O. Chronic parathyroiditis associated with parathyroid hyperplasia and hyperparathyroidism. Am J Surg Pathol. 1984;8(3):211–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyce BF, Doherty VR, Mortimer G. Hyperplastic parathyroiditis—a new autoimmune disease? J Clin Pathol. 1982;35(8):812–4.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kovacs K, et al. Parathyroid chief cell adenoma associated with massive chronic parathyroiditis in a woman with hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pathol. 2007;18(1):42–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sinha SN, McArdle JP, Shepherd JJ. Hyperparathyroidism with chronic parathyroiditis in a multiple endocrine neoplasia patient. Aust N Z J Surg. 1993;63(12):981–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Talat N, Diaz-Cano S, Schulte KM. Inflammatory diseases of the parathyroid gland. Histopathology. 2011;59(5):897–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lori A. Erickson
    • 1
  1. 1.Mayo Clinic College of MedicineRochesterUSA

Personalised recommendations