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Contribution of Oxidative Stress to the Pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders: Impact of Genetic and Environmental Factors

Chapter
Part of the Oxidative Stress in Applied Basic Research and Clinical Practice book series (OXISTRESS)

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are behaviorally defined neurodevelopmental disorders. The increased prevalence of oxidative stress in autism has been demonstrated by analyzing markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein and DNA oxidation), glutathione redox/antioxidant capacity, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant proteins, methionine metabolism, and nitric oxide. Many environmental factors such as heavy metals, maternal drugs (valproic acid, thalidomide), and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (e.g., bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phthalates) can induce or increase vulnerability to oxidative stress and have been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of ASDs. A few studies have also suggested involvement of genes involved in oxidative/nitrosative stress in autism. Here, we review evidence of increased oxidative damage coupled with reduced antioxidant defense, genetic susceptibility to oxidative/nitrosative stress, and impact of environmental agents in autism.

Keywords

Autism Spectrum Disorder Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Autistic Child Asperger Syndrome Prenatal Exposure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ASDs

Autism spectrum disorders

BPA

Bisphenol A

CNS

Central nervous system

COX

Cyclooxygenase

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid

EDCs

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals

ER

Estrogen receptors

ETC

Electron transport chain

GABA

Gamma aminobutyric acid

Glo 1

Glyoxalase 1

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GSH

Glutathione

GSSG

Oxidized glutathione

GSTM1

Glutathione S-transferase M1

H2O2

Hydrogen peroxide

IFN

Interferon

IL

Interleukin

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAOA

Monoamine oxidase A

MD

Mitochondrial dysfunction

MDA

Malonyldialdehyde

mGluR5

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5

MMP

Mitochondrial membrane potential

MTHFR

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase

NO

Nitric oxide

ONOO

Peroxynitrite anions

PBDEs

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers

PCBs

Polychlorinated biphenyls

PDD-NOS

Pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified

PDDs

Pervasive developmental disorders

PDE

Phosphodiesterase

PE

Phosphatidylethanolamine

RBC

Red blood cell

RFC

Reduced folate carrier

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAH

S-adenosinehomocysteine

SAM

S-adenosylmethionine

SNPs

Single nucleotide polymorphisms

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

TBA

Thiobarbituric acid

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

VPA

Valproic acid

XO

Xanthine oxidase

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by funds from the New York State Office for People With Developmental Disabilities, the Department of Defense Autism Spectrum Disorders Research Program AS073224P2, the Autism Research Institute, and the Autism Collaboration.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurochemistryNew York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental DisabilitiesStaten IslandUSA

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