Advertisement

Introduction

  • Ning Zhang
  • Jon W. Mark
Chapter
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Computer Science book series (BRIEFSCOMPUTER)

Abstract

Cognitive radio is a promising solution to the spectrum scarcity versus underutilization dilemma, which enables unlicensed users to opportunistically use the unused spectrum owned by licensed users to increase the spectrum utilization. To avoid interfering with the operation of licensed users, unlicensed users perform spectrum sensing before transmission to detect the available channels. However, the outcome of spectrum sensing may be inaccurate due to fading or shadowing. To overcome this problem, cooperation has been leveraged in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this chapter, we first give a brief introduction to CRNs, including fundamentals of cognitive radio, spectrum sensing, and cooperation in CRNs.

Keywords

Cognitive Radio Fusion Center Cooperative Communication Cooperative Spectrum Dynamic Spectrum Access 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    I. Akyildiz, W. Lee, M. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, “Next generation/dynamic spectrum access/cognitive radio wireless networks: a survey,” Computer Networks, vol. 50, no. 13, pp. 2127–2159, 2006.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  2. 3.
    S. Haykin, “Cognitive radio: brain-empowered wireless communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 201–220, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 4.
    F. C. Commission et al., “Notice of proposed rule making and order: Facilitating opportunities for flexible, efficient, and reliable spectrum use employing cognitive radio technologies,” ET docket, no. 03-108, p. 73, 2005.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    I. Akyildiz, W. Lee, M. Vuran, and S. Mohanty, “A survey on spectrum management in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 40–48, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 6.
    Y.-C. Liang, Y. Zeng, E. C. Peh, and A. T. Hoang, “Sensing-throughput tradeoff for cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1326–1337, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.
    A. Ghasemi and E. Sousa, “Spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks: requirements, challenges and design trade-offs,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 32–39, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 8.
    J. Huang, R. A. Berry, and M. L. Honig, “Auction-based spectrum sharing,” Mobile Networks and Applications, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 405–418, 2006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 10.
    T. Han, T. Xing, N. Zhang, K. Liu, B. Tang, and Y. Liu, “Wireless spectrum sharing via waiting-line auction,” in Proc. of 11th IEEE ICCS, 2008.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    Q. Zhao and B. M. Sadler, “A survey of dynamic spectrum access,” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 79–89, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 15.
    Y. Wang, Q. Zhang, Y. Zhang, and P. Chen, “Adaptive resource allocation for cognitive radio networks with multiple primary networks,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2012, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 2012.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 16.
    J. Wang, M. Ghosh, and K. Challapali, “Emerging cognitive radio applications: A survey,” IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 74–81, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 17.
    D. Scaperoth, B. Le, T. Rondeau, D. Maldonado, C. W. Bostian, and S. Harrison, “Cognitive radio platform development for interoperability,” in Proc. of IEEE MILCOM. IEEE, 2006, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  13. 18.
    I. Akyildiz, W. Lee, and K. Chowdhury, “Crahns: Cognitive radio ad hoc networks,” Ad Hoc Networks, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 810–836, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 19.
    R. Manna, R. H. Louie, Y. Li, and B. Vucetic, “Cooperative spectrum sharing in cognitive radio networks with multiple antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 5509–5522, 2011.CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  15. 20.
    Y. Zeng, Y. Liang, A. Hoang, and R. Zhang, “A review on spectrum sensing for cognitive radio: challenges and solutions,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, vol. 2010, 2010.Google Scholar
  16. 21.
    T. Yucek and H. Arslan, “A survey of spectrum sensing algorithms for cognitive radio applications,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 116–130, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 22.
    D. Cabric, S. Mishra, and R. Brodersen, “Implementation issues in spectrum sensing for cognitive radios,” in Proceedings of the 38th. Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, pp. 772–776, 2004.Google Scholar
  18. 24.
    F. Digham, M. Alouini, and M. Simon, “On the energy detection of unknown signals over fading channels,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 21–24, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 25.
    W. Zhang, R. Mallik, and K. Letaief, “Optimization of cooperative spectrum sensing with energy detection in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 5761–5766, 2009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 28.
    Z. Ye, G. Memik, and J. Grosspietsch, “Energy detection using estimated noise variance for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks,” in Proc. of IEEE WCNC. IEEE, 2008, pp. 711–716.Google Scholar
  21. 29.
    K.-L. Du and W. H. Mow, “Affordable cyclostationarity-based spectrum sensing for cognitive radio with smart antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 1877–1886, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 30.
    Z. Ye, J. Grosspietsch, and G. Memik, “Spectrum sensing using cyclostationary spectrum density for cognitive radios,” in 2007 IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems. IEEE, 2007, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  23. 31.
    I. Akyildiz, B. Lo, and R. Balakrishnan, “Cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks: A survey,” Physical Communication, 2010.Google Scholar
  24. 32.
    A. Ghasemi and E. Sousa, “Collaborative spectrum sensing for opportunistic access in fading environments,” in New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, 2005. DySPAN 2005. 2005 First IEEE International Symposium on. IEEE, 2005, pp. 131–136.Google Scholar
  25. 33.
    W. Lee and I. Akyildiz, “Optimal spectrum sensing framework for cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 7, no. 10, pp. 3845–3857, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 34.
    N. Zhang, N. Cheng, H. Liang, Y. Tang, J. W. Mark, and X. Shen, “Efficient channel assignment for cooperative sensing based on convex bipartite matching,” Proceedings of IEEE ICC, 2014.Google Scholar
  27. 35.
    J. Zhang and Q. Zhang, “Stackelberg game for utility-based cooperative cognitiveradio networks,” in Proceedings of the tenth ACM international symposium on Mobile ad hoc networking and computing, 2009.Google Scholar
  28. 36.
    O. Simeone, I. Stanojev, S. Savazzi, Y. Bar-Ness, U. Spagnolini, and R. Pickholtz, “Spectrum leasing to cooperating secondary ad hoc networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 203–213, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 37.
    N. Zhang, N. Cheng, N. Lu, H. Zhou, J. W. Mark, and X. Shen, “Cooperative cognitive radio networking for opportunistic channel access,” in Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM, 2013.Google Scholar
  30. 38.
    E. Peh and Y.-C. Liang, “Optimization for cooperative sensing in cognitive radio networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE WCNC 2007. IEEE, pp. 27–32.Google Scholar
  31. 39.
    G. Ganesan and Y. Li, “Cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks,” in Proceedings of IEEE DySPAN. IEEE, 2005, pp. 137–143.Google Scholar
  32. 40.
    S. Mishra, A. Sahai, and R. Brodersen, “Cooperative sensing among cognitive radios,” in Proc. of IEEE ICC, vol. 4. IEEE, 2006, pp. 1658–1663.Google Scholar
  33. 41.
    Y. Zou, Y. Yao, and B. Zheng, “A selective-relay based cooperative spectrum sensing scheme without dedicated reporting channels in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1188–1198, 2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 42.
    G. Ganesan and Y. Li, “Cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio, part i: Two user networks,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 2204–2213, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 43.
    Y. Zou, Y. Yao, and B. Zheng, “Cooperative relay techniques for cognitive radio systems: Spectrum sensing and secondary user transmissions,” IEEE Communications Magazine, 2012.Google Scholar
  36. 44.
    R. Chen, J. Park, and J. Reed, “Defense against primary user emulation attacks in cognitive radio networks,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 25–37, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 45.
    R. Chen, J. Park, and K. Bian, “Robust distributed spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks,” pp. 1876–1884, 2008.Google Scholar
  38. 46.
    P. Kaligineedi, M. Khabbazian, and V. Bhargava, “Secure cooperative sensing techniques for cognitive radio systems,” pp. 3406–3410, 2008.Google Scholar
  39. 47.
    L. Lazos, S. Liu, and M. Krunz, “Mitigating control-channel jamming attacks in multi-channel ad hoc networks,” pp. 169–180, 2009.Google Scholar
  40. 48.
    N. Zhang, N. Lu, N. Cheng, J. W. Mark, and X. Shen, “Cooperative spectrum access towards secure information transfer for crns,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, to appear.Google Scholar
  41. 54.
    I. Stanojev, O. Simeone, U. Spagnolini, Y. Bar-Ness, and R. Pickholtz, “Cooperative arq via auction-based spectrum leasing,” IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 1843–1856, 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ning Zhang
    • 1
  • Jon W. Mark
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

Personalised recommendations