Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Intervention and Family Supports

  • Wendy Machalicek
  • Robert Didden
  • Russell Lang
  • Vanessa Green
  • Jenna Lequia
  • Jeff Sigafoos
  • Giulio Lancioni
  • Mark F. O’Reilly
Chapter
Part of the Autism and Child Psychopathology Series book series (ACPS)

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by communication and social impairments, and restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Children with autism also often engage in challenging behaviors such as tantrumming, elopement (e.g., leaving a designated area without adult supervision), aggression, and self-injury (Baghdadli et al., Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 47:622–627; Conroy et al., Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25:157–166; Horner et al., Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32:423–446). These core deficits represent a significant disability affecting child development, but also present unique and persistent challenges to the child’s parents and other family members.

Parent involvement Family supports Siblings 

References

  1. Ainbinder, J. G., Blanchard, L. W., Singer, G. H. S., Sullivan, M. E., & Powers, L. K. Marquis, J. G., et al. (1998). A qualitative study of parent to parent support for parents of children with special needs. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 23, 99–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, S. R., Avery, D. L., DiPietro, E. K., Edwards, G. L., & Christian, W. P. (1987). Intensive home-based early intervention with autistic children. Education and Treatment of Children, 10, 352–366.Google Scholar
  4. Baghdadli, A., Pascal, C., Grisli, S., & Aussiloux, C. (2003). Risk factors for self-injurious behaviours among 222 young children with autistic disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 622–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baker, B. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K. A., & Edelbrock, C. (2002). Behavior problems and parenting stress in families of three-year-old children with and without developmental delays. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107(6), 433–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker-Ericzén, M. J., Brookman-Frazee, L., & Stahmer, A. (2005). Stress levels and adaptability in parents of toddlers with and without autism spectrum disorders. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30, 194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Banach, M., Iducie, J., Conway, L., & Couse, L. J. (2010). Family support and empowerment: Post autism diagnosis support group for parents. Social Work with Groups, 33, 69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Benderix, Y., & Sivberg, B. (2007). Siblings’ experiences of having a brother or sister with autism and mental retardation: A case study of 14 siblings from five families. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 22, 410–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ben-Itzchak, E., & Zachor, D. A. (2007). The effects of intellectual functioning and autism severity on outcome of early behavioral intervention for children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 28, 287–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernhiemer, L. P., Gallimore, R., & Weisner, T. (1990). Ecological theory as a context for the individual family service plan. Journal of Early Intervention, 14, 219–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bibby, P., Eikeseth, S., Martin, N. T., Mudford, O. C., & Reeves, D. (2002). Progress and outcomes for children with autism receiving parent-managed intensive interventions. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 81–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Birnbrauer, J. S., & Leach, D. J. (1993). The Murdoch early intervention program after two years. Behaviour Change, 10, 63–74.Google Scholar
  13. Blackledge, J. T., & Hayes, S. C. (2006). Using acceptance and commitment training in the support of parents of children diagnosed with autism. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 28, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boyd, R. D., & Corley, M. J. (2001). Outcome survey of early intensive behavioral intervention for young children with autism in a community setting. Autism: The international journal of research and practice, 5, 430–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bristol, M. M., Gallagher, J. J., & Schopler, E. (1988). Mothers and fathers of young developmentally disabled and nondisabled boys: Adaptation and spousal support. Developmental Psychology, 24, 441–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brookman-Frazee, L., Stahmer, A., Baker-Ericzen, M. J., & Tsai, K. (2006). Parent interventions for children with autism spectrum and disruptive behavior disorders: Opportunities for cross-fertilization. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 9, 181–200.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cash, W. M., & Evans, I. M. (1975). Training preschool children to modify their retarded siblings’ behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 6, 13–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cattell-Gordon, D., & Cattell-Gordon, D. (1998). The development of an effective applied behavior analysis program for a young child with autism: A parent’s perspective. Infants and Young Children, 10, 79–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Celiberti, D. A., & Harris, S. L. (1993). Behavioral intervention for siblings of children with autism: A focus on skills to enhance play. Behavior Therapy, 24, 573–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chan, J. B., & Sigafoos, J. (2000). A review of child and family characteristics related to the use of respite care in developmental disability services. Child & Youth Care Forum, 29, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chan, J., & Sigafoos, J. (2001). Does respite care reduce parental stress in families with developmentally disabled children? Child and Youth Care Forum, 30, 253–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Colletti, G., & Harris, S. L. (1977). Behavior modification in the home: Siblings as behavior modifiers, parents as observers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 5, 21–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Conroy, M., Dunlap, G., Clarke, S., & Alter, P. (2005). A descriptive analysis of positive behavior intervention research with young children with challenging behavior. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 25, 157–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cowen, P. S., & Reed, D. A. (2002). Effects of respite care for children with developmental disabilities: Evaluation of an intervention for at-risk families. Public Health Nursing, 19, 272–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crnic, K. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (1990). Minor parenting stresses with young children. Child Development, 61, 1628–1637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dillenburger, K., Keenan, M., Gallagher, S., & McElhinney, M. (2004). Parent education and home-based behaviour analytic intervention: An examination of parents’ perceptions of outcome. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 29, 119–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunst, C. J., & Trivette, C. M. (2009). Capacity-building family systems intervention practices. Journal of Family Social Work, 12, 119–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunst, C. J., Leet, H. E., & Trivette, C. M. (1988). Family resources, personal well-being, and early intervention. Journal of Special Education, 22, 108–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dunst, C. J., Trivette, C. M., & Deal, A. G. (Eds.). (1994). Supporting and strengthening families: Methods, strategies and practices. Cambridge: Brookline.Google Scholar
  30. Dyson, L. L. (1989). Adjustment of siblings of handicapped children: A comparison. Journal of Pediatric Psychiatry, 14, 215–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eikeseth, S., Smith, T., Jahr, E., & Eldevik, S. (2002). Intensive behavioral treatment at school for 4- to 7-year-old children with autism. A 1-year comparison controlled study. Behavior Modification, 26, 49–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ekas, N. V., Lickenbrock, D. M., & Whitman, T. L. (2010). Optimism, social support, and well-being in mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 1274–1284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eldevik, S., Eikeseth, S., Jahr, E., & Smith, T. (2006). Effects of low-intensity behavioral treatment for children with autism and mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 211–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Feldman, F. A., & Wener, S. E. (2002). Collateral effects of behavioral parent training on families of children with developmental disabilities and behavior disorders. Behavioral Interventions, 17, 75–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fenske, E. C., Zalenski, S., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1985). Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehensive intervention program. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5, 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ferraioli, S. J., & Harris, S. L. (2011). Teaching joint attention to children with autism through a sibling mediated behavioral intervention. Behavioral Intervention, 26, 261–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferraioli, S. J., Hansford, A., & Harris, S. L. (in press). Benefits of including siblings in the treatments of autism spectrum disorders. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. doi:10.1016/j.cbpra.2010.05.005.Google Scholar
  38. Fisman, S. N., Wolf, L., Ellison, D., Gillis, B., Freeman, T., & Szatmari, P. (1996). Risk and protective factors affecting the adjustment of siblings of children with chronic disabilities. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1532–1541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Folkman, S., & Moskowitz, J. (2000). Positive affect and the other side of coping. American Psychologist, 55, 647–654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Frea, W. D., & McNerney, E. K. (2008). Early intensive applied behavior analysis intervention for autism. In J. K. Luiselli, D. C. Russo, W. P. Christian, & S. M. Wilczynski (Eds.), Effective practices for children with autism educational and behavioral support interventions that work. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Friend, A. C., Summers, J., & Turnbull, A. P. (2009). Impacts of family support in early childhood intervention research. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 44, 453–470.Google Scholar
  42. Glidden, L. M., & Jobe, B. M. (2006). The longitudinal course of depression in adoptive and birth mothers of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 3, 139–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Greenberg, J. S., Seltzer, M. M., Orsmond, G. I., & Krauss, M. W. (1999). Siblings of adults with mental illness or mental retardation: Current involvement and expectation of future caregiving. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1214–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Grindle, C. F., Kovshoff, H., Hastings, R. P., & Remington, B. (2009). Parents’ experiences of home-based applied behavior programs for young children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 42–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hall, L. (2009). Autism spectrum disorders: From theory to practice. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  46. Hames, A., & Rollings, C. (2009). A group of parents and careers of children with severe intellectual disabilities and challenging behavior. Educational and Child Psychology, 26, 47–54.Google Scholar
  47. Harris, S. L., Handleman, J. S., Gordon, R., Kristoff, B., & Fuentes, F. (1991). Changes in cognitive and language functioning of preschool children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 21, 281–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harris, S. L., & Handleman, J. S. (2000). Age and IQ at intake as predictors of placement for young children with autism: A four- to six-year follow-up. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 137–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1975). Incidental teaching of language in the preschool. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 411–420.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hart, B., & Risley, T. R. (1995). Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Development of Young American Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brooks.Google Scholar
  51. Hastings, R. P. (2003). Child behavior problems and partner mental health as correlates of stress in mothers and fathers of children with autism. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. Special Issue on Family Research, 47(4–5), 231–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hastings, R. P. (2007). Longitudinal relationships between sibling behavioral adjustment and behavior problems of children with developmental disabilities. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1485–1492.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hastings, R. P., & Beck, A. (2004). Practitioner review: Stress intervention for parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1338–1349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hastings, R. P., & Johnson, E. (2001). Stress in UK families conducting intensive home-based behavioral intervention fort heir young child with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 327–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hastings, R. P., & Taunt, H. M. (2002). Positive perceptions in families of children with developmental disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 107, 116–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hastings, R. P., Kovshoff, H., Ward, N., degli Espinosa, F., Brown, T., & Remington, B. (2005). Systems analysis of stress and positive perceptions in mothers and fathers of pre-school children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 35, 635–644.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hendriks, A. H. C., De Moor, J. M. H., Oud, J. H. L., & Savelberg, M. M. H. W. (2000). Perceived changes in well-being of parents with a child in a therapeutic toddler class. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21, 455–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Herman, S. E., & Marcenko, M. O. (1997). Perceptions of services and resources as mediators of depression among parents of children with developmental disabilities. Mental Retardation, 35, 458–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Herring, S., Gray, K., Taffe, J., et al. (2006). Behaviour and emotional problems in toddlers with pervasive developmental disorders and developmental delay: Associations with parental mental health and family functioning. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 874–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hieneman, M., & Dunlap, G. (2001). Factors affecting the outcomes of community-based behavioral support. II: Factory category importance. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Horner, R., Carr, E., Strain, P., Todd, A., & Reed, H. (2002). Problem behavior interventions for young children with autism: A research synthesis. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 423–446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Howard, J. S., Sparkman, C. R., Cohen, H. G., Green, G., & Stanislav, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatment for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 359–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Howlin, P., Magiati, I., Charman, T., & MacLean, W. E. (2009). Systematic review of early intensive behavioral interventions for children with autism. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 114, 23–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ireys, H. T., Sills, E. M., Kolodner, K. B., & Walsh, B. B. (1996). A social support intervention for parents of children with Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results of a randomized trial. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 21, 633–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Jones, C. D., & Schwartz, I. S. (2004). Siblings, peers and adults: Differential effects of models for children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 24, 187–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kaiser, A. P., & Hester, P. P. (1994). Generalized effects of enhanced milieu teaching. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 37, 1320–1340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kaiser, A. P., Hancock, T. B., & Nietfeld, J. (2000). The effects of parent-implemented enhanced milieu teaching on the social communication of children who have autism. Early Education and Development, 11, 423–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kaminsky, L., & Dewey, D. (2001). Siblings relationships of children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 31, 399–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kaminski, J. W., Valle, L. A., Filene, J. H., & Boyle, C. L. (2008). A meta-analytic review of components associated with parent training program effectiveness. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 567–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kayfitz, A. D., Gragg, M. N., & Orr, R. R. (2010). Positive experiences of mothers and fathers of children with autism. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23, 337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kazdin, A. E. (1998). Research design in clinical psychology (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  72. Keenan, M., Dillenburger, K., Doherty, A., Byrne, J., & Gallagher, S. (2010). Experiences of parents during diagnosis and forward planning for children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23, 390–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kim, T., & Horn, E. (2010). Sibling-implemented intervention for skill development with children with disabilities. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30, 80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Knott, F., Lewis, C., & Williams, T. (2007). Sibling interaction of children with autism: Development over 12 months. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1987–1995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Koegel, R. L., O’Dell, M. C., & Koegel, L. K. (1987). A natural language teaching paradigm for nonverbal autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 17, 187–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Good, A., Cerniglia, L., Murphy, C., & Koegel, L. K. (1989). How to teach pivotal behaviors to children with autism: A training manual. Santa Barbara: University of California.Google Scholar
  77. Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., Loos, L. M., & Dirlich-Wilhelm, H. (1992). Consistent stress profiles in mothers of children with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 22, 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Koegel, R. L., Bimbela, A., & Schreibman, L. (1996). Collateral effects of parent training on family interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 347–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Koegel, R. L., Symon, J. B., & Koegel, L. K. (2002). Parent education for families of children with autism living in geographically distant areas. Journal of Positive Behavior Intervention, 4, 88–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kuhn, J. C., & Carter, A. S. (2006). Maternal self-efficacy and associated parenting cognitions among mothers of children with autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 564–575.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Lafasakis, M., & Sturmey, P. (2007). Training parent implementation of discrete-trial teaching: Effects on generalization of parent teaching and child correct responding. Journal of Applied behavior Analysis, 40, 685–689.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lang, R., Machalicek, W., Rispoli, M., & Regester, A. (2009). Training parents to implement communication interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review. Evidence-based Communication Assessment and Intervention, 3, 174–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Law, M., King, S., Stewart, D., & King, G. (2001). The perceived effects of parent-led support groups for parents of children with disabilities. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 21, 29–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Leaf, R. B., & McEachin, J. J. (1999). A work in progress: Behavior management strategies and a curriculum for intensive behavioral treatment of autism. New York: DRL Books.Google Scholar
  85. Lecavalier, L., Leone, S., & Wiltz, J. (2006). The impact of behaviour problems on caregiver stress in young people with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 172–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lee, G. K. (2009). Parents of children with high functioning autism: How well do they cope and adjust? Journal of Developmental & Physical Disabilities, 21(2), 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lobato, D., & Tlaker, A. (1985). Sibling intervention with a retarded child. Education and Treatment of Children, 8, 221–228.Google Scholar
  88. Lobato, D., Faust, D., & Spirito, A. (1988). Examining the effects of chronic disease and disability on children’s sibling relationships. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 13, 389–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lovaas, O. I. (1987). Behavioral treatment and normal educational and intellectual functioning in young autistic children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lovaas, O. I. (1993). The development of a treatment-research project for developmentally disabled and autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 617–630.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lovaas, O. I. (1996). The UCLA young autism model of service delivery. In C. Maurice, G. Green & S. C. Luce (Eds.), Behavioral intervention for young children with autism: A manual for parents and professionals (pp. 241-248). Austin: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  92. Love, J. M., Kisker, E. E., Ross, C. M., Schochet, P. Z., Brooks-Gunn, J. et al. (2002). Making a difference in the lives of infants and toddlers and their families: The impacts of early head start (Vol. 1). Final technical report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.Google Scholar
  93. Love, J. R., Carr J. E., Almason, S. M., & Ingeborg Pétursdóttir, A. (2009). Early and intensive behavioral intervention for autism: A survey of clinical practices. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 421–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Lucyshyn, J. M., Irvin, L. K., Blumberg, E. R., Laverty, R., Horner, R. H., & Sprague, J. R. (2004). Validating the construct of coercion in family routines: Expanding the unit of analysis in behavioral assessment with families with children with developmental disabilities. Research & Practices for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 29, 104–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Luther, E. H., Canham, D. L., & Cureton, V. Y. (2005). Coping and social support for parents of children with autism. The Journal of School Nursing, 21, 40–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Machalicek, W., O’Reilly, M. F., Beretvas, N., Sigafoos, J., & Lancioni, G. (2007). A review of interventions to reduce challenging behavior in school settings for students with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 1(3), 229–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Machalicek, W., O’Reilly, M. F., Beretvas, N., Sigafoos, J., Lancioni, G., Sorrells, A., Lang, R., & Rispoli, M. (2008). A review of school-based instructional interventions for students with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2, 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mahoney, G., & Bella, J. M. (1998). An examination of the effects of family-centered early intervention on child and family outcomes. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 18, 83–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mahoney, G., & Perales, F. (2003). Using relationship-focused intervention to enhance the social-emotional functioning of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 23, 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Matson, M. L., Mahan, S., & Matson, J. L. (2009). Parent training: A review of methods for children with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 868–875.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. McConachie, H., & Diggle, T. (2007). Parent implemented early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 13, 120–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. McCormick, K. M., Stricklin, S., Nowak, T. M., & Rous, B. (2008). Using eco-mapping to understand family strengths and resources. Young Exceptional Children, 11, 17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. McEachin, J. J., Smith, T., & Lovaas, O. I. (1993). Long-term outcome for children with autism who received early intensive behavioral treatment. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. McHale, S. M., Sloan, J., & Simeonsson, R. J. (1986). Sibling relationships of children with autistic, mentally retarded, and nonhandicapped brothers and sisters. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 399–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. McKeever, P. (1983). Siblings of chronically ill children: A literature review with implications for research and practice. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 53, 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Meadan, H., Ostrosky, M. M., Zaghlawan, H. Y., & Yu, S. Y. (2009). Promoting social and communicative behavior of young children with autism spectrum disorders a review of parent-implemented intervention studies. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 29, 90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Meadan, H., Halle, J. W., & Ebata, A. T. (2010). Families with children who have autism spectrum disorders: Stress and support. Exceptional Children, 77, 7–36.Google Scholar
  108. Meyer, D. J., & Vadasy, P. F. (1994). Sibshops: Workshops for siblings of children with special needs. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  109. Moes, D. (1995). Parent education and parenting stress. In R. L. Koegel & L. K. Koegel (Eds.), Teaching children with autism: Strategies for initiating positive interactions and improving learning opportunities (pp. 79–93). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  110. Moes, D. R., & Frea, W. D. (2002). Contextualized behavioral support in en early intervention for children with autism and their families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32, 519–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Moes, D., Koegel, R. L., Schreibman, L., & Loos, L. M. (1992). Stress profiles for mothers and fathers of children with autism. Psychological Reports, 71, 1272–1274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism (Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  113. Noh, S., Dumas, J. E., Wolf, L. C., & Fishman, S. N. (1989). Delineating sources of stress in parents of exceptional children. Family Relations, 38, 456–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Odom, S. L., Boyd, B. A., Hall, L. J., & Hume, K. (2010). Evaluation of comprehensive treatment models for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 40, 425–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Orsmond, G. I., Kuo, H. Y., & Seltzer, M. M. (2009). Siblings of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder: Sibling relationships and well-being in adolescence and adulthood. Autism. The International Journal of Research and Practice, 13, 59–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Orsmond, G. I., & Seltzer, M. M. (2007). Siblings of individuals with autism spectrum disorders across the life course. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 313–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Orstein-Davis, N., & Carter, A. S. (2008). Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: Associations with child characteristics. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1278–1291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Osborne, L. A., & Reed, P. (2010). Stress and self-perceived parenting behaviors of parents of children with autistic spectrum conditions. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 4, 405–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Osborne, L. A., McHugh, L., Saunders, J., & Reed, P. (2008). Parenting stress reduces the effectiveness of early teaching interventions for autistic spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 38, 1092–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., & Strumey, P. (2011). A meta-analytic study of the effectiveness of comprehensive ABA-based early intervention programs for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 5, 60–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Peters-Scheffer, N., Didden, R., & Korzilius, H. (2012). Maternal stress predicted by characteristics of children with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 6, 696–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Reagon, K. A., Higbee, T. S., & Endicott, K. (2006). Teaching pretend play skills to a student with autism using video modeling with a sibling as model and play partner. Education and Treatment of Children, 29, 517–528.Google Scholar
  123. Rizzolo, M. C., Hemp, R., Braddock, D., & Schindler, A. (2009). Family support services for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities: Recent national trends. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47, 152–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Rosenberg, S. A., Robinson, C., & Fryer, G. E. (2002). Evaluation of paraprofessional home visiting services for children with special needs and their families. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22, 158–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ross, P., & Cuskelly, M. (2006). Adjustment, sibling problems and coping strategies of brothers and sisters of children with autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 31, 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sage, K. D., & Jegatheesan, B. (2010). Perceptions of siblings with autism and relationships with them: American and Asian American siblings draw and tell. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 35, 92–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sallows, G. O., & Graupner, T. D. (2005). Intensive behavioral treatment for children with autism: Four-year outcome and predictors. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 110, 417–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Santelli, B., Ginsberg, C., Sullivan, S., & Niederhauser, C. (2002). A collaborative study of parent to parent programs: Implications for positive behavior support. In J. M. Lucyshyn & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Families and positive behavior support: addressing problem behavior in family contexts; families and positive behavior support; addressing problem behavior in family contexts; family, community & disability (pp. 439–456). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  129. Sarkadi, A., & Bremberg, S. (2005). Socially unbiased parenting support on the Internet: A cross-sectional study of users of a large Swedish parenting website. Child: Care, Health, and Development, 31, 43–52.Google Scholar
  130. Schieve, L. A., Blumberg, S. J., Rice, C., Visser, S. N., & Boyle, C. (2007). The relationship between autism and parenting stress. Pediatrics, 119, S114–S121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. J. (1971). Parents as cotherapists in the treatment of psychotic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schreck, K. A., & Miller, V. A. (2010). How to behave ethically in a world of fads. Behavioral Interventions, 25, 307–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Schreibman, L. (2000). Intensive behavioral/psychoeducational treatments for autism: Research needs and future directions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 30, 373–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Schreibman, L. (2005). The science and fiction of autism. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  135. Schreibman, L., O’Neill, R. E., & Koegel, R. L. (1983). Behavioral training for siblings of autistic of children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16, 129–138.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Schreibman, L., Keneko, S., & Koegel, R. (1991). Positive affect of parents of autistic children: A comparison across two teaching techniques. Behavior Therapy, 22, 479–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Schultz, T. R., Schmidt, C. T., & Stichter, J. P. (2011). A review of parent education programs for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 26, 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Seltzer, M. M., Greenberg, J. S., Floyd, F. J., et al (2001a). Life course impacts of parenting a child with a disability. American Journal Mental Retardation, 106, 265–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Seltzer, M. M., Krauss, M. W., Orsmond, G. I., & Vestal, C. (2001b). Families of adolescents and adults with autism: Uncharted territory. In L. M. Glidden (Ed.), International review of research on mental retardation (Vol. 23). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  140. Sheinkopf, S. J., & Siegel, B. (1998). Home based behavioral treatment of young autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 15–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Sherer, M. R., & Schreibman, L. (2005). Individual behavior profiles and predictors of treatment effectiveness for children with autism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 525–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Singer, G. H. S. (2006). Meta-analysis of comparative studies of depression in mothers of children with and without developmental disabilities. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 111, 155–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Singer, G. H. S., Ethridge, B. L., & Aldana, S. I. (2007). Primary and secondary effects of parenting and stress management interventions for parents of children with developmental disabilities: A meta-analysis. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 13, 257–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Singer, G. H. S., Marquis, J., Powers, L. K., Blanchard, L., Divenere, N., & Santelli, B. et al (1999). A multi-site evaluation of parent to parent programs for parents of children with disabilities. Journal of Early Intervention, 22, 217–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Smith, T., & Antolovich, M. (2000). Parental perceptions of supplemental interventions received by young children with autism in intensive behavior analytic treatment. Behavioral Interventions, 15, 83–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Smith, T., Buch, G. A., & Gamby, T. E. (2000b). Parent-directed, intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 21, 297–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Smith, T., Donahoe, P. A., & Davis, B. J. (2000a). The UCLA treatment model. In J. S. Harris & J. S. Handleman (Eds.), Preschool education programs for children with autism (2nd ed., pp. 23–48). Austin: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
  148. Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000c). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 105, 269–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sofronoff, K., & Farbotko, M. (2002). The effectiveness of parent management training to increase self-efficacy in parents of children with Asperger syndrome. Autism: the international journal of research and practice, 6, 271–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Stiebel, D. (1999). Promoting augmentative communication during daily routines, a parent problem-solving intervention. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 1, 159–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Steiner, A. M. (2011). A strength-based approach to parent education for children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 13, 178–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Stoneman, Z. (2005). Siblings of children with disabilities: Research themes. Mental Retardation, 43, 339–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. St. Pierre, R. G., Layzer, J. I., & Barnes, H. V. (1996). Two-generation programs: Design, cost, and short-term effectiveness. The Future of Children, 5, 76–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Strain, P. S., & Danko, C. D. (1995). Caregivers’ encouragement of positive interactions between preschoolers with autism and their siblings. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 3, 2–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Swenson-Pierce, A., Kohl, F. L., & Egel, A. L. (1987). Siblings as home trainers: A strategy for teaching domestic skills to children. The Journal of the Association for Persons with Severe Handicaps, 12, 53–60.Google Scholar
  156. Symon, J. B. (2005). Expanding interventions for children with autism: Parents as trainers. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 7, 159–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Taunt, H. M., & Hastings, R. P. (2002). Positive impact of children with developmental disabilities on their families: A preliminary study. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 37, 410–420.Google Scholar
  158. Taylor, B. A., Levin, L., & Jasper, S. (1999). Increasing play-related statements in children with autism toward their siblings: Effects of video-modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 11, 253–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Thomas, K. C., Ellis, A. R., McLaurin, C.,. Daniels, J., & Morrissey, J. P. (2007). Access to care for autism-related services. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37, 1902–1912.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Tobing, L., & Glenwick, D. (2002). Relation of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Parent version to diagnosis, stress, and age. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 23, 211–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Trivette, C. M., Deal, A., & Dunst, C. J. (1986). Family needs, sources of support, and professional roles: Critical elements of family systems assessment and intervention. Diagnostique, 11, 246–267.Google Scholar
  162. Trivette, C. M., Dunst, C. J., & Hamby, D. W. (2010). Influences of family-systems intervention practices on parent-child interactions and child development. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 30, 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Tsao, L., & Odom, S. L. (2006). Sibling-mediate social interaction intervention for young children with autism. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 26, 106–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Tugade, M. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). Resilient individuals use positive emotions to bounce back from negative emotional experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86, 320–333.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Twoy, R., Connolly, P. M., & Novak, J. M. (2007). Coping strategies used by parents of children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 19, 251–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Vismara, L. A., & Rogers, S. J. (2008). The early start Denver model: A case study of an innovative practice. Journal of Early Intervention, 31, 91–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Vismara, L. A., & Rogers, S. J. (2010). Behavioral treatments in autism spectrum disorder: What do we know? Annual Review in Clinical Psychology, 6, 447–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Warren, Z., McPheeters, M. L., Sathe, N., Foss-Feig, J. H., Glasser, A., & Veenstra-VanderWeele, J. (2011). A systematic review of early intensive intervention for autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics, 127, e1303–e1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Weiss, M. J. (1999). Differential rates of skill acquisition and outcomes of early intensive behavioral intervention for autism. Behavioral Interventions, 14, 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Whalen, C., & Schreibman, L. (2003). Joint attention training for children with autism using behavior modification procedures. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 44, 456–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wolf, L., Fisman, S., Ellison, D., & Freeman, T. (1998). Effect of sibling perception of differential parental treatment in sibling dyads with one disabled child. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1317–1325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yirmiya, N., Shaked, M., & Erel, O. (2001). Comparison of siblings of individuals with autism and siblings of individuals with other diagnoses: An empirical summary. In E. Schopler, N. Yirmiya, C. Shulman & L. M. Marcus (Eds.), The research basis for autism intervention (pp. 59-73). New York: Kluwer/P.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wendy Machalicek
    • 1
  • Robert Didden
    • 2
  • Russell Lang
    • 3
  • Vanessa Green
    • 4
  • Jenna Lequia
    • 5
  • Jeff Sigafoos
    • 4
  • Giulio Lancioni
    • 6
  • Mark F. O’Reilly
    • 7
  1. 1.University of OregonEugeneUSA
  2. 2.Radboud University NijmegenNijmegenNetherlands
  3. 3.Texas State UniversityTexasUSA
  4. 4.Victoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand
  5. 5.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  6. 6.University of BariBariItaly
  7. 7.The University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations