Thresholds for Conservation and Management: Structured Decision Making as a Conceptual Framework

  • James D. Nichols
  • Mitchell J. Eaton
  • Julien Martin
Chapter

Abstract

A conceptual framework is provided for considering the threshold concept in natural resource management and conservation. We define three kinds of thresholds relevant to management and conservation. Ecological thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes bring about substantial or specified changes in system dynamics. They are frequently incorporated into ecological models used to project system responses to management actions. Utility thresholds are components of management objectives and are values of state or performance variables at which small changes yield substantial changes in the value of the management outcome. Decision thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes prompt changes in management actions in order to reach specified management objectives. Decision thresholds are derived from the other components of the decision process. We advocate a structured decision making (SDM) approach within which the following components are identified: objectives (possibly including utility thresholds), potential actions, models (possibly including ecological thresholds), monitoring program, and a solution algorithm (which produces decision thresholds). Adaptive resource management (ARM) is described as a special case of SDM developed for recurrent decision problems that are characterized by uncertainty. We believe that SDM, in general, and ARM, in particular, provide good approaches to conservation and management. Use of SDM and ARM also clarifies the distinct roles of ecological thresholds, utility thresholds, and decision thresholds in informed decision processes.

Keywords

Adaptive management Decision threshold Ecological threshold Structured decision making Utility threshold 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • James D. Nichols
    • 1
  • Mitchell J. Eaton
    • 2
  • Julien Martin
    • 3
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveyPatuxent Wildlife Research CenterLaurelUSA
  2. 2.Southeast Climate Science CenterU.S. Geological SurveyRaleighUSA
  3. 3.Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation CommissionFish and Wildlife Research InstituteSt PetersburgUSA

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