Hypoxia pp 409-426 | Cite as

Modeling Variable Phanerozoic Oxygen Effects on Physiology and Evolution

  • Jeffrey B. Graham
  • Corey J. Jew
  • Nicholas C. Wegner
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 903)


Geochemical approximation of Earth’s atmospheric O2 level over geologic time prompts hypotheses linking hyper- and hypoxic atmospheres to transformative events in the evolutionary history of the biosphere. Such correlations, however, remain problematic due to the relative imprecision of the timing and scope of oxygen change and the looseness of its overlay on the chronology of key biotic events such as radiations, evolutionary innovation, and extinctions. There are nevertheless general attributions of atmospheric oxygen concentration to key evolutionary changes among groups having a primary dependence upon oxygen diffusion for respiration. These include the occurrence of Devonian hypoxia and the accentuation of air-breathing dependence leading to the origin of vertebrate terrestriality, the occurrence of Carboniferous-Permian hyperoxia and the major radiation of early tetrapods and the origins of insect flight and gigantism, and the Mid-Late Permian oxygen decline accompanying the Permian extinction. However, because of variability between and error within different atmospheric models, there is little basis for postulating correlations outside the Late Paleozoic. Other problems arising in the correlation of paleo-oxygen with significant biological events include tendencies to ignore the role of blood pigment affinity modulation in maintaining homeostasis, the slow rates of O2 change that would have allowed for adaptation, and significant respiratory and circulatory modifications that can and do occur without changes in atmospheric oxygen. The purpose of this paper is thus to refocus thinking about basic questions central to the biological and physiological implications of O2 change over geological time.


Hypoxia Hyperoxia Evolution Tetrapod Paleozoic Paleoatmosphere Oxygen 



The authors thank W. Milsom, J. Harrison, and R. Roach for their comments on this manuscript and their help with its presentation at the 2011 International Hypoxia Symposium. N.C. Wegner and C.J. Jew were supported by NSF grants IOS-0922569 and IOS-0817774 during the writing of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffrey B. Graham
    • 1
    • 2
  • Corey J. Jew
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Nicholas C. Wegner
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  2. 2.Marine Biology Research Division, Scripps Institution of OceanographyUniversity of California, San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Ecology and EvolutionUniversity of California, IrvineIrvineUSA
  4. 4.Fisheries Resources Division, Southwest Fisheries Science CenterNOAA FisheriesLa JollaUSA

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