Karachay Ayran: From Domestic Technology to Industrial Production
Karachay Ayran is a product of mixed fermentation that contains low levels of alcohol and carbon dioxide. Karachay Ayran has been reported to have antimicrobial, anticancer, and other health promoting properties.
Domestic and industrial Ayran production processes differ significantly, in both the processes applied and the composition of the microflora starters used. Three types of bacteria are known to be active in Karachay Ayran production, namely the thermophilic (Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus), mesophilic lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis, Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis biovar. diacetilactis), and yeasts.
The industrial technology in current use consists of two stages, fermentation at (35–45) °C caused by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria and ripening at 4–8 °C caused by yeast.
To provide the appropriate growth conditions for all Karachay Ayran microflora the three temperature intervals used in the process should correspond to the optimum growth temperatures of the microorganisms involved. In this case Ayran produced industrially has the typical organoleptic and physicochemical profiles of traditional Karachay Ayran.
KeywordsAyran Fermented milk Caucasus Cattle
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