Acute Injuries in the Posterior Leg



Appropriate diagnosis and management of acute muscular injuries of the posterior leg is critical for achieving optimal outcomes. Acute management refers to the immediate period following the injury and the following several days. The acute injury period corresponds to the inflammatory phase of muscle healing. Thoughtful management of the acute phase reduces the morbidity associated with the injury and sets the stage for the repair and remodeling phases.


Acute muscle injury Treatment Contusion Strain Tear Rupture Penetrating trauma Acute compartment syndrome Inflammatory phase 


  1. 1.
    Tero AH, Teppo LN, Minna K, Hannu K, Markku J. Muscle injuries. Am J of Sports Med. 2005;33(5):745–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beiner JM, Jokl P. Muscle contusion injury and myositis ossificans traumatica. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2002;403:S110–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan JB, Wheeler JH, Hopkinson WJ, Arciero RA, Kolakowski KR. Quadraceps contusions. West point update. Am J Sports Med. 1991;16:299–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bleakley C, McDonough S, DacAuley D. The use of ice in the treatment of acute soft-tissue injury. Am J Med. 2004;32(1):251–61.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee H, Natsui H, Akimoto T, Yanag K, Ohshima N, Kono I. Effects of cryotherapy after contusion using real-time intravital microscopy. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(7):1093–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schaser K, Disch AC, Stover JF, Lauffer A, Bail HJ, Mittlmeier T. Prolonged superficial local cryotherapy attenuates microcirculatory impairment, regional inflammation, and muscle necrosis after closed soft tissue injury in rats. Am J of Sports Med. 2007;35(1):93–1028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dixon BJ. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2009;2(2):74–7. (Published online 2009 May 23).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fijn R, Koorevaar RT, Brouwers RBJ. Prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip replacement with NSAIDs. Pharm World Sci. 2003;25:138–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wilkin LD, Merrick, MA, Kirby TE, Devor ST. Influence of therapeutic ultrasound on skeletal muscle regeneration following blunt contusion. Int J Sports Med. 2004;25:73–7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Armfield DR, Kim DH, Towers JD, Bradley JP, Roberson DD. Sports-related muscle injury in the lower extremity. Clin Sports Med. 2006;25(4):803–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Glazer JL, Hosey RG. Soft-tissue injuries of the lower extremity. Prim Care. 2004;31(4):1005–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roberts JM, Wilson K. Effect of stretching duration on active and passive range of motion in the lower extremity. Br J Sports Med. 1999;33:259–63.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hammond JW, Hinton RY, Curl LA, Muriel JM, LoveringRM. Use of autologous platelet-rich plasma to treat muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(6):1135–42.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sports MedicineSaint Joseph Regional Medical CenterMishawakaUSA
  2. 2.Medical EducationSaint Joseph Regional Medical CenterMishawakaUSA

Personalised recommendations