Electrochemical Machining, Chemical Machining, and Chemical Mechanical Polishing Processes
Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a machining process which removes material through anodic electrochemical dissolution. ECM can create complicated form in high-strength, temperature-resistant difficult-to-machine materials because of the minimal tool (electrode) wear. For example, ECM is commonly used in the manufacturing of turbine blade made of Ni-based high-temperature alloy. Chemical machining (ChM), also known as etching or chemical etching, is the controlled chemical dissolution of work material for machining. It is a critical process to manufacture large components as well as micro features in the integrated circuits (IC). Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), also known as the chemical mechanical planarization, utilizes the combination of chemical and mechanical effects to polish and flatten the surfaces. It is a critical manufacturing process for IC manufacturing. These three nontraditional machining processes related to chemical actions are presented in this chapter.