Return to Work for Individuals with Moderate to Severe Brain Injury

  • Paul H. Wehman
  • Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
  • Richard D. Kunz
  • Pamela D. Targett
Part of the Handbooks in Health, Work, and Disability book series (SHHDW, volume 1)

Abstract

Traumatic Brain Injury results in a number of cognitive, behavioral, and physical issues that can impact employment. One way to help overcome these barriers is to implement effective vocational interventions. This chapter provides information on ways to assist individuals with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury with returning to work. It begins by explaining Traumatic Brain Injury and the progression of a patient’s recovery. Next, the problems and complications associated with injury are reviewed, followed by vocational implications arising from possible difficulties a patient may face. Some medically oriented treatment strategies to help circumvent these issues are also offered. Then attention is turned to a review of various return to work models, including a more in-depth look at the individualized supported employment model to assist individuals with moderate and severe Traumatic Brain Injury to obtain/gain and maintain real work for real pay. The chapter concludes with ideas for the direction of future research.

Keywords

Fatigue Depression Migraine Bisphosphonates Dystonia 

References

  1. Alderfer, B. S., Arciniegas, D. B., & Silver, J. M. (2005). Treatment of depression following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20, 544–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altmayer, T., O’Dell, M. W., Jones, M., Martin, V., & Hawkins, H. H. (1996). Cisapride as a treatment for gastroparesis in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 1093–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andelic, N., Hammergren, N., Bautz-Holter, E., Sveen, U., Brunborg, C., & Roe, C. (2009). Functional outcome and health-related quality of life 10 years after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 120, 16–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, V., Brown, S., Newitt, H., & Hoile, H. (2009). Educational, vocational, psychosocial, and quality-of-life outcomes for adult survivors of childhood traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24, 303–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, V., Brown, S., Newitt, H., & Hoile, H. (2011). Long-term outcome from childhood traumatic brain injury: Intellectual ability, personality, and quality of life. Neuropsychology, 25, 176–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Anson, K., & Ponsford, J. (2006). Evaluation of a coping skills group following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 167–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Ketchum, J. M., Williams, K., Kreutzer, J. S., Marquez de la Plata, C. D., O’Neil-Pirozzi, T. M., et al. (2008). Racial differences in employment outcomes after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89, 988–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Arciniegas, D., Adler, L., Topkoff, J., Cawthra, E., Filley, C. M., & Reite, M. (1999). Attention and memory dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: Cholinergic mechanisms, sensory gating, and a hypothesis for further investigation. Brain Injury, 13, 1–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Arciniegas, D. B., & Silver, J. M. (2006). Pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic cognitive impairments. Behavioral Neurology, 17, 25–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Asikainen, I., Kaste, M., & Sarna, S. (1996). Patients with traumatic brain injury referred to a rehabilitation and re-employment programme: Social and professional outcome for 508 Finnish patients 5 or more years after injury. Brain Injury, 10, 883–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Avesani, R., Salvi, L., Rigoli, G., & Gambini, M. G. (2005). Reintegration after severe brain injury: A retrospective study. Brain Injury, 19, 933–939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Backhaus, S. L., Ibarra, S. L., Klyce, D., Trexler, L. E., & Malec, J. F. (2010). Brain injury coping skills group: A preventive intervention for patients with brain injury and their caregivers. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91, 840–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Baguley, I. J., Cooper, J., & Felmingham, K. (2006). Aggressive behavior following traumatic brain injury: How common is common? Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21, 45–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ball, K., & Owsley, C. (1992). The useful field of view test: A new technique for evaluating age-related declines in visual function. Journal of American Optometric Association, 64(1), 71–79.Google Scholar
  15. Barth, J. T., Pliskin, N., Axelrod, B., Faust, D., Fisher, J., Harley, J. P., et al. (2003). Introduction to the NAN 2001 definition of a clinical neuropsychologist. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18, 551–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Becker, D. R., Xie, H., McHugo, G. J., Halliday, J., & Martinez, R. A. (2006). What predicts supported employment program outcomes? Community Mental Health Journal, 42(3), 303–313.Google Scholar
  17. Berlin, H. A., Rolls, E. T., & Kischka, U. (2004). Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Brain, 127, 1108–1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ben-Yishay, Y., Rattok, J., Lakin, P., Piasetsky, E. B., Ross, B., Silver, S., … & Ezrachi, O. (1985). Neuropsychologic rehabilitation: Quest for a holistic approach. In Seminars in neurology (Vol. 5, No. 03, pp. 252–259). Thieme Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Ben-Yishay, Y., Silver, S. M., Piasetsky, E., & Rattok, J. (1987). Relationship between employability and vocational outcome after intensive holistic cognitive rehabilitation. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 2(1), 35–48.Google Scholar
  20. Bigler, E. D., Anderson, C. V., & Blatter, D. D. (2002). Temporal lobe morphology in normal aging and traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Radiology, 23(2), 255–266.Google Scholar
  21. Bombardier, C. H., Fann, J. R., Temkin, N. R., Esselman, P. C., Barber, J., & Dikmen, S. S. (2010). Rates of major depressive disorder and clinical outcomes following traumatic brain injury. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303, 1938–1945.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bounds, T. A., Schopp, L., Johnstone, B., Unger, C., & Goldman, H. (2003). Gender differences in a sample of vocational rehabilitation clients with TBI. NeuroRehabilitation, 18, 189–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brain Injury Special Interest Group of the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. (1998). Practice parameter: Antiepileptic drug treatment of posttraumatic seizures. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 79, 594–597.Google Scholar
  24. Brooke, M., Castrate, K., Patterson, D., & Basic, K. (1992). Agitation and restlessness after closed head injury: A prospective study of 100 consecutive admissions. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73, 320–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brooks, N., Campsie, L., Symington, C., Beattie, A., & McKinlay, W. (1986). The five year outcome of severe blunt head injury: A relative’s view. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 49, 764–770.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brooks, J., Fos, L. A., Greve, K. W., & Hammond, J. S. (1999). Assessment of executive function in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Trauma, 46, 159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cardenas, D., & McLean, A. (1992). Psychopharmacologic management of traumatic brain injury. In S. Berrol (Ed.), Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinics of North America: Traumatic Brain Injury. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  28. Carnevale, G. J., Anselmi, V., Johnston, M. V., Busichio, K., & Walsh, V. (2006). A natural setting behavior management program for persons with acquired brain injury: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(10), 1289–1297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Castriotta, R. J., & Murthy, J. N. (2011). Sleep disorders in patients with traumatic brain injury: A review. CNS Drugs, 25(3), 175–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chesnut, R. M., Carney, N., Maynard, H., Mann, N. C., Patterson, P., & Helfand, M. (1999). Summary report: Evidence for the effectiveness of rehabilitation for persons with traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 14(2), 176–188.Google Scholar
  31. Chalidis, B., Stengel, D., & Giannoudis, P. V. (2007). Early excision and late excision of heterotopic ossification after traumatic brain injury are equivalent: A systematic review of the literature. Journal of Neurotrauma, 24(11), 1675–1686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chamelian, L., Feinstein, A., & MRCPsych. (2004). Outcome after mild to moderate traumatic brain injury: The role of dizziness. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85, 1662–1666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Chang, B. S., Lowenstein, D. H., & Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. (2003). Practice parameter: Antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury: Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Neurology, 60(1), 10–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cicerone, K. D., Langenbahn, D. M., Braden, C., Malec, J. F., Kalmar, K., Fraas, M., et al. (2011). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: Updated review of the literature from 2003 through 2008. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92(4), 519–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cifu, D. X., Craig, E. J., & Rowland, T. (1996). Neuromedical considerations affecting return to work in the brain injured adult. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 7, 257–265.Google Scholar
  36. Cifu, D. X., Keyser-Marcus, L., Lopez, E., Wehman, P., Kreutzer, J. S., Englander, J., et al. (1997). Acute predictors of successful return to work 1 year after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78, 125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Cipriano, C. A., Pill, S. G., & Keenan, M. A. (2009). Heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgery, 17(11), 689–697.Google Scholar
  38. Cicerone, K. D., Dahlberg, C., Kalmar, K., Langenbahn, D. M., Malec, J. F., Bergquist, T. F., … & Morse, P. A. (2000). Evidence-based cognitive rehabilitation: recommendations for clinical practice. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(12), 1596–1615.Google Scholar
  39. Clinchot, D. M., Bogner, J., Mysiw, W. J., Fugate, L., & Corrigan, J. (1998). Defining sleep disturbance after brain injury. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77(4), 291–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Corrigan, J. D., Lineberry, L. A., Komaroff, E., Langlois, J. A., Selassie, A. W., & Wood, K. D. (2007). Employment after traumatic brain injury: Differences between men and women. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88, 1400–1409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Crepeau, F., & Scherzer, P. (1993). Predictors and indicators of work status after traumatic brain injury: A meta-analysis. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 3(1), 5–35.Google Scholar
  42. da Silva Cardoso, E., Romero, M. G., Chan, F., Dutta, A., & Rahimi, M. (2007). Disparities in vocational rehabilitation services and outcomes for Hispanic clients with traumatic brain injury: Do they exist? Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22, 85–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. De Benedittis, G., & De Santis, A. (1983). Chronic posttraumatic headache: Clinical, psychopathological features and outcome determinants. Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences, 27(3), 177–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. de Joode, E., van Heugten, C., Verhey, F., & van Boxtel, M. (2010). Efficacy and usability of assistive technology for patients with cognitive deficits: A systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24, 701–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Deutsch, P. M., Kendall, S. L., Daninhirsch, C., Cimino-Ferguson, S., & McCollom, P. (2006). Vocational outcomes after brain injury in a patient population evaluated for Life Care Plan reliability. NeuroRehabilitation, 21, 305–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Devitt, R., Colantonio, A., Dawson, D., Teare, G., Ratcliff, G., & Chase, S. (2006). Prediction of long-term occupational performance outcomes for adults after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Disability and Rehabilitation, 28, 547–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Doctor, J. N., Castro, J., Temkin, N. R., Fraser, R. T., Machamer, J. E., & Dikmen, S. S. (2005). Workers’ risk of unemployment after traumatic brain injury: A normed comparison. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 747–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Dodrill, C. B., & Troupin, A. S. (1991). Neuropsychological effects of carbamazepine and phenytoin: A reanalysis. Neurology, 41(1), 141–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Drake, R. E., McHugo, G. J., Bebout, R. R., Becker, D. R., Harris, M., Bond, G. R., et al. (1999). A randomized clinical trial of supported employment for inner-city patients with severe mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(7), 627–633.Google Scholar
  50. Draper, K., Ponsford, J., & Schonberger, M. (2007). Psychosocial and emotional outcomes 10 years following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 22, 278–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Duong, T. T., Englander, J., Wright, J., Cifu, D. X., Greenwald, B. D., & Brown, A. W. (2004). Relationship between strength, balance, and swallowing deficits and outcome after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(8), 1291–1297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Englander, J., Bushnik, T., Duong, T. T., Cifu, D. X., Zafonte, R., Wright, J., et al. (2003). Analyzing risk factors for late posttraumatic seizures: A prospective, multicenter investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(3), 365–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Eslinger, P. J., Zappala, G., Chakara, F., & Barrett, A. M. (2007). Cognitive impairments after TBI. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed.). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  54. Faul, M., Xu, L., Wald, M. M., & Coronado, V. G. (2010). Traumatic brain injury in the United States: Emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002-2006. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
  55. Fadyl, J. K., & McPherson, K. M. (2009). Approaches to vocational rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: a review of the evidence. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 24(3), 195–212.Google Scholar
  56. Fellus, J. L., & Elovic, E. P. (2007). Fatigue: Assessment and treatment. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed.). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  57. Felmingham, K. L., Baguley, I. J., & Crooks, J. (2001). A comparison of acute and post-discharge predictors of employment 2 years after traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 435–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Fichtenberg, N. L., Zafonte, R. D., Putnam, S., Mann, N. R., & Millard, A. E. (2002). Insomnia in a post-acute brain injury sample. Brain Injury, 16(3), 197–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fisk, G. D., Owsley, C., & Mennemeier, M. (2002). Vision, attention, and self-reported driving behaviors in community-dwelling stroke survivors. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(4), 469–477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fisk, J. D., Pontefract, A., Ritvo, P. G., Archibald, C. J., & Murray, T. J. (1994). The impact of fatigue on patients with multiple sclerosis. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 21(1), 9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fleming, J., Tooth, L., Hassell, M., & Chan, W. (1999). Prediction of community integration and vocational outcome 2-5 years after traumatic brain injury rehabilitation in Australia. Brain Injury, 13, 417–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Floden, D., Alexander, M. P., Kubu, C. S., Katz, D., & Stuss, D. T. (2008). Impulsivity and risk-taking behavior in focal frontal lobe lesions. Neuropsychologia, 46, 213–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Franulic, A., Carbonell, C. G., Pinto, P., & Sepulveda, I. (2004). Psychosocial adjustment and employment outcome 2, 5 and 10 years after TBI. Brain Injury, 18(2), 119–129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Fraser, R., Machamer, J., Temkin, N., Dikmen, S., & Doctor, J. (2006). Return to work in traumatic brain injury (TBI): A perspective on capacity for job complexity. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 25, 141–148.Google Scholar
  65. Gaetz, M. (2004). The neurophysiology of brain injury. Clinical Neuropsychology, 115, 4–18.Google Scholar
  66. Garland, D. E. (1991). A clinical perspective on common forms of acquired heterotopic ossification. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 263, 13–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Gary, K. W., Arango-Lasprilla, J. C., Ketchum, J. M., Kreutzer, J. S., Cololillo, A., Novack, T. A., et al. (2009). Racial difference in employment outcome after traumatic brain injury at 1, 2, and 5 years post injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 90, 1699–1707.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Gerstmann, J. (2001). Pure tactile agnosia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 18, 267–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Gervasio, A., & Matthies, B. (1995). Behavioral management of agitation in the traumatically brain-injured person. Neurorehabilitation, 5, 309–316.Google Scholar
  70. Giacino, J. T., & Zasler, N. D. (1995). Outcome after severe traumatic brain injury: Coma, the vegetative state, and the minimally responsive state. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10, 40–56.Google Scholar
  71. Gollaher, K., High, W., Sherer, M., Bergloff, P., Boake, C., Young, M. E., et al. (1998). Prediction of employment outcome one to three years following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Brain Injury, 12, 255–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Greenspan, A. I., Wrigley, J. M., Kresnow, M., Branche-Dorsey, C. M., & Fine, P. R. (1996). Factors influencing failure to return to work due to traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 10, 207–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Gurr, B., & Moffat, N. (2001). Psychological consequences of vertigo and the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation for brain injury patients. Brain Injury, 15(5), 387–400.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hart, T., Dijkers, M., Whyte, J., Braden, C., Trott, C. T., & Fraser, R. (2010). Vocational interventions and supports following job placement for persons with traumatic brain injury. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 32(3), 135–150.Google Scholar
  75. Hammond, F. M., Grattan, K. D., Sasser, H., Corrigan, J. D., Rosenthal, M., Bushnik, T., et al. (2004). Five years after traumatic brain injury: A study of individual outcomes and predictors of change in function. NeuroRehabilitation, 19, 25–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hansen, T. S., Larsen, K., & Engberg, A. W. (2008). The association of functional oral intake and pneumonia in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 89, 2114–2120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hart, T., Giovannetti, T., Montgomery, M. W., & Schwartz, M. F. (1998). Awareness of errors in naturalistic action after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 13(5), 16–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society. (1998). Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgias and facial pain. Cephalgia, 8(Suppl 7), 1–96.Google Scholar
  79. Hibbard, M. R., Uysal, S., Sliwinski, M., & Gordon, W. A. (1998). Undiagnosed health issues in individuals with traumatic brain injury living in the community. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 13(4), 47–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Hillary, F. G., Schultheis, M. T., Challis, B. H., Millis, S. R., Carnevale, G. J., Galshi, T., et al. (2003). Spacing of repetitions improves learning and memory after moderate and severe TBI. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25, 49–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Hillier, S. L., Sharpe, M. H., & Metzer, J. (1997). Outcomes 5 years posttraumatic brain injury (with further reference to neurophysical impairment and disability). Brain Injury, 11(9), 661–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Holtslag, H. R., Post, M. W., van der Werken, C., & Lindeman, E. (2007). Return to work after major trauma. Clinical Rehabilitation, 21, 373–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hsieh, J. T., Wolfe, D. L., Miller, W. C., & Curt, A. (2008). Spasticity outcome measures in spinal cord injury: Psychometric properties and clinical utility. Spinal Cord, 46(2), 86–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Hyder, A. A., Wunderlich, C. A., Puvanachandra, P., Gururaj, G., & Kobusingye, O. C. (2007). The impact of traumatic brain injuries: A global perspective. NeuroRehabilitation, 22, 341–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ikonomovic, M. D., Uryu, K., Abrahamson, E. E., Ciallella, J. R., Trojanowski, J. Q., Lee, V. M. Y., et al. (2004). Alzheimer’s pathology in human temporal cortex surgically excised after severe brain injury. Experimental Neurology, 190, 192–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ip, R. Y., Dornan, J., & Schentag, C. (1995). Traumatic brain injury: Factors predicting return to work or school. Brain Injury, 9, 517–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Jeremitsky, E., Omert, L., Dunham, M., Pretetch, J., & Rodriguez, A. (2003). Harbingers of poor outcome the day after severe brain injury: Hypothermia, hypoxia, and hypoperfusion. The Journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, 54, 312–319.Google Scholar
  88. Jorge, R. E., Starkstein, S. E., Arndt, S., Moser, D., Crespo-Facorro, B., & Robinson, R. G. (2005). Alcohol misuse and mood disorders following traumatic brain injury. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 742–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Joseph, A. B., & Wroblewski, B. (1995). Depression, antidepressants, and traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10(2), 90–95.Google Scholar
  90. Kant, R., Smith-Seemiller, L., & Zeiler, D. (1998). Treatment of aggression and irritability after head injury. Brain Injury, 12(8), 661–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kapoor, N., & Ciuffreda, K. J. (2002). Vision disturbances following traumatic brain injury. Current Treatment Options in Neurology, 4(4), 271–280.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Katz, D. I., Polyak, M., Coughlan, D., Nichols, M., & Roche, A. (2009). Natural history of recovery from brain injury after prolonged disorders of consciousness: Outcome of patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation with 1-4 year follow up. Progress in Brain Research, 177, 73–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Katz, D., Zasler, N., & Zafonte, R. (2007). Clinical continuum of care and natural history. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed., pp. 3–13). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  94. Keyser-Marcus, L. A., Bricout, J. C., Wehman, P., Campbell, L. R., Cifu, D. X., Englander, J., et al. (2002). Acute predictors of return to employment after traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal follow up. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 635–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kim, S. H., Manes, F., Kosier, T., Baruah, S., & Robinson, R. G. (1999). Irritability following traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 187, 327–335.Google Scholar
  96. Koskinen, S. (1998). Quality of life 10 years after a very severe traumatic brain injury (TBI): The perspective of the injured and the closest relative. Brain Injury, 12(8), 631–648.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kreutzer, J. S., Gervasio, A. H., & Camplair, P. S. (1994). Patient correlates of caregivers’ distress and family functioning after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 8(3), 211–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Kreutzer, J. S., Marwitz, J. H., Walker, W., Sander, A., Sherer, M., Bogner, J., et al. (2003). Moderating factors in return to work and job stability after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, 18, 128–138.Google Scholar
  99. Kreutzer, J. S., Seel, R. T., & Gourley, E. (2001). The prevalence and symptom rates of depression after traumatic brain injury: A comprehensive examination. Brain Injury, 15(7), 563–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Lehman, J. F., Boswell, S., Price, R., Burleigh, A., DeLateur, B. J., Jaffe, K. M., et al. (1990). Quantitative evaluation of sway as an indicator of functional balance in posttraumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71(12), 955–962.Google Scholar
  101. Levin, H., & Grossman, R. (1978). Behavioral sequelae of closed head injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 35, 720–727.Google Scholar
  102. Lew, H. L., Garvert, D. W., Pogoda, T. K., Hsu, P. T., Devine, J. M., White, D. K., et al. (2009). Auditory and visual impairments in patients with blast-related traumatic brain injury: Effect of dual sensory impairment on Functional Independence Measure. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 46, 819–826.Google Scholar
  103. Linan, E., O’Dell, M. W., & Pierce, J. M. (2001). Continuous passive motion in the management of heterotopic ossification in a brain injured patient. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(8), 614–617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lykouras, L., Oulis, P., Adrachta, D., Daskalopoulou, E., Kalfakis, N., Triantaphyllou, N., et al. (1998). Beck Depression Inventory in the detection of depression among neurological inpatients. Psychopathology, 31, 213–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Lynch, W. J. (1995). You must remember this: Assistive devices for memory impairment. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 10(1), 94–97.Google Scholar
  106. Malec, J. F., Buffington, A. L., Moessner, A. M., & Degiorgio, L. (2000). A medical/vocational case coordination system for persons with brain injury: An evaluation of employment outcomes. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(8), 1007–1015.Google Scholar
  107. Malec, J. F. (2001). Impact of comprehensive day treatment on societal participation for persons with acquired brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82(7), 885–895.Google Scholar
  108. Machamer, J., Temkin, N., Fraser, R., Doctor, J. N., & Dikmen, S. (2005). Stability of employment after traumatic brain injury. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 11, 807–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Maher, L. M., & Raymer, A. M. (2004). Management of anomia. Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, 11, 10–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Masanic, C. A., Bayley, M. T., van Reekum, R., & Simard, M. (2001). Open-label study of donepezil in traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 82, 896–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Mateer, C. A., Sira, C. S., & O’Connell, M. E. (2005). Putting Humpty Dumpty together again: The importance of integrating cognitive and emotional interventions. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(1), 62–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mayer, N. H., Esquenazi, A., & Keenan, M. A. E. (2007). Assessing and treating muscle overactivity in the upper motor neuron syndrome. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed., pp. 615–653). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  113. Mayer, N. H., & Herman, R. M. (2008). Positive signs and consequences of an upper motor neuron syndrome. In A. Brashear & N. H. Mayer (Eds.), Spasticity and other forms of muscle overactivity in the upper motor neuron syndrome: Etiology, management, and the role of botulinum toxin (pp. 11–26). New York: We Move.Google Scholar
  114. Mayo Clinic. (2008). Understanding brain injury: A guide for the family. Retrieved from http://mayoresearch. mayo.edu/mayo/research/tbims/upload/ubi_families.pdf/
  115. McAllister, T. W. (2007). Neuropsychiatric aspects of TBI. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed., pp. 835–861). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  116. McAuliffe, M. J., Carpenter, S., & Moran, C. (2010). Speech intelligibility and perceptions of communication effectiveness by speakers with dysarthria following traumatic brain injury and their communication partners. Brain Injury, 24(12), 1408–1415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. McCrimmon, S., & Oddy, M. (2006). Return to work following moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 20, 1037–1046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. McDonald, B. C., Flashman, L. A., & Saykin, A. J. (2002). Executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury: Neural substrates and treatment strategies. NeuroRehabilitation, 17, 333–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. McGhee, H., Cornwell, P., Addis, P., & Jarman, C. (2006). Treating dysarthria following traumatic brain injury: Investigating the benefits of commencing treatment during posttraumatic amnesia in two participants. Brain Injury, 20, 1307–1319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. McNamee, S., Walker, W., Cifu, D. X., & Wehman, P. H. (2009). Minimizing the effect of TBI-related physical sequelae on vocational return. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 46(6), 893–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Medd, J., & Tate, R. L. (2000). Evaluation of an anger management therapy programme following acquired brain injury: A preliminary study. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 10(2), 185–201.Google Scholar
  122. Mitchelson, F. (1992). Pharmacological agents affecting emesis. A review (Part I). Drugs, 43, 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Murdoch, B. E., & Whelan, B.-M. (2007). Assessment and treatment of speech and language disorders in TBI. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed., pp. 865–886). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  124. Mysiw, W. J., & Sandel, M. E. (1997). The agitated brain injured patient. Part 2: Pathophysiology and treatment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 78, 213–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Nakase-Richardson, R., Yablon, S. A., & Sherer, M. (2007). Prospective comparison of acute confusion severity with duration of posttraumatic amnesia in predicting employment outcome after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 78, 872–876.Google Scholar
  126. Nissen, M. J. (1986). Neuropsychology of attention and memory. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 1(3), 13–21.Google Scholar
  127. Nybo, T., & Koskiniemi, M. (1999). Cognitive indicators of vocational outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood. Brain Injury, 13, 759–766.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. O’Connell, M. J. (2000). Prediction of return to work following traumatic brain injury: Intellectual, memory, and demographic variables. Rehabilitation Psychology, 45, 212–217.Google Scholar
  129. O’Keefe, F. M., Dockree, P. M., & Robertson, I. H. (2004). Poor insight in traumatic brain injury mediated by impaired error processing? Evidence from electrodermal activity. Brain Research and Cognitive Brain Research, 22(1), 101–112.Google Scholar
  130. Oddy, M., Coughlan, T., Tyerman, A., & Jenkins, D. (1985). Social adjustment after closed head injury: A further follow up seven years after injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 48, 564–565.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Olver, J. H., Ponsford, J. L., & Curran, C. A. (1996). Outcome following traumatic brain injury: A comparison between 2 and 5 years after injury. Brain Injury, 10(11), 841–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Ouellet, M. C., Beaulieu-Bonneau, S., & Morin, C. M. (2006). Insomnia in patients with traumatic brain injury: Frequency, characteristics, and risk factors. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 21(3), 199–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Ouellet, M. C., & Morin, C. M. (2004). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia associated with traumatic brain injury: A single case study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(8), 1298–1302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Ouellet, M. C., & Morin, C. M. (2007). Efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia associated with traumatic brain injury: A single-case experimental design. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 88(12), 1581–1592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Ownsworth, T., Desbois, J., Grant, E., Fleming, J., & Strong, J. (2006). The associations among self-awareness, emotional well-being, and employment outcome following acquired brain injury: A 12-month longitudinal study. Rehabilitation Psychology, 51, 50–59.Google Scholar
  136. Park, N., Moskovitch, M., & Robertson, I. (1999). Divided attention impairments after traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychologia, 37, 1119–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Parks, J. K., Diaz-Arrastia, R., Gentilello, L. M., & Shafi, S. (2010). Postinjury employment as a surrogate for functional outcomes: A quality indicator for trauma systems. Proceedings (Baylor University Medical Centre), 23, 355–358.Google Scholar
  138. Petropoulou, K. B., Panourias, I. G., Rapidi, C.-A., & Sakas, D. E. (2007). The importance of neurorehabilitation to the outcome of neuromodulation in spasticity. Acta Neurochirurgica, 7(1), S243–S250.Google Scholar
  139. Pickett, T. C., Radfar-Baublitz, L. S., McDonald, S. D., Walker, W. C., & Cifu, D. X. (2007). Objectively assessing balance deficits after TBI: Role of computerized posturography. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 44(7), 983–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Ponsford, J. L., Olver, J. H., & Curran, C. (1995a). A profile of outcome: 2 years after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 19(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  141. Ponsford, J. L., Olver, J. H., Curran, C., & Ng, K. (1995b). Prediction of employment status 2 years after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 9, 11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Prigatano, G. P. (1991). Disordered mind, wounded soul: The emerging role of psychotherapy in rehabilitation after brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 6, 1–10.Google Scholar
  143. Prigatano, G. P., Klonoff, P. S., O’Brien, K. P., Altman, I. M., Amin, K., Chiapello, D., … & Mora, M. (1994). Productivity after neuropsychologically oriented milieu rehabilitation. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 9(1), 91–102.Google Scholar
  144. Pringhsheim, T., Davenport, W. J., & Becker, W. J. (2010). Prophylaxis of migraine headache. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(7), E269.Google Scholar
  145. Rappaport, M., Herrero-Backe, C., Rappaport, M. L., & Winterfield, K. M. (1989). Head injury outcome up to ten years later. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 70, 885–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Rath, J. F., Langenbahn, D. M., Simon, D., Sherr, R. L., Fletcher, J., & Diller, L. (2004). The construct of problem solving in higher level neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 613–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Ruffolo, C. F., Friedland, J. F., Dawson, D. R., Colantonio, A., & Lindsay, P. H. (1999). Mild traumatic brain injury from motor vehicle accidents: Factors associated with return to work. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, 392–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sabates, N. R., Gonce, M. A., & Farris, B. K. (1991). Neuro-ophthalmological findings in closed head trauma. Journal of Clinical Neuro-ophthalmologmy, 11(4), 273–277.Google Scholar
  149. Sandel, M. E., & Mysiw, W. J. (1996). The agitated brain injured patient. Part 1: Definitions, differential diagnosis and assessment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 617–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sander, A. M., Kreutzer, J. S., Rosenthal, M., Delmonico, R., & Young, M. E. (1996). A multicenter longitudinal investigation of return to work and community integration following traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 11, 70–84.Google Scholar
  151. Sarno, M. T., Buonaguro, A., & Levita, E. (1986). Characteristics of verbal impairment in closed head injured patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 67, 400–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Schierhout, G., & Roberts, I. (2010). Antiepileptic drugs for preventing seizures following acute traumatic brain injury. The Cochrane Library, 1, 1–14.Google Scholar
  153. Schonberger, M., Ponsford, J., Olver, J., Ponsford, M., & Wirtz, M. (2011). Prediction of functional and employment outcome 1 year after traumatic brain injury: A structural equation modeling approach. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 82, 936.Google Scholar
  154. Seel, R. T., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2003). Depression assessment after traumatic brain injury: An empirically based classification method. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 1621–1628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Seel, R. T., Kreutzer, J. S., Rosenthal, M., Hammond, F. M., Corrigan, J. D., & Black, K. (2003). Depression after traumatic brain injury: A National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation research model systems multicenter investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84(2), 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Seel, R. T., Macciocchi, S., & Kreutzer, J. S. (2010). Clinical considerations for the diagnosis of major depression after moderate to severe TBI. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 25(2), 99–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Seipel, R., Langner, S., Platz, T., Lippa, M., Kuehn, J. P., & Hosten, N. (2011). Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: Epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population. Skeletal Radiology, 41, 61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Shames, J., Treger, I., Ring, H., & Giaquinto, S. (2007). Return to work following traumatic brain injury: Trends and challenges. Disability and Rehabilitation, 29, 1387–1395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Shepard, N. T., Clendaniel, R. A., & Ruckenstein, M. (2007). Balance and dizziness. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed., pp. 491–510). New York: Demos Medical Publishing, LLC.Google Scholar
  160. Sherer, M., Bergloff, P., Boake, C., High, W. M., & Levin, E. (1998a). The awareness questionnaire: Factor analysis structure and internal consistency. Brain Injury, 12, 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Sherer, M., Bergloff, P., High, W., Jr., & Nick, T. G. (1999). Contribution of functional ratings to prediction of long term employment outcome after traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 13, 973–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Sherer, M., Bergloff, P., Levin, E., High, W. M., Oden, K. E., & Nick, T. G. (1998b). Impaired awareness and employment outcome after traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 13, 52–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Sherer, M., Sander, A. M., Nick, T. G., High, W. M., Jr., Malec, J. F., & Rosenthal, M. (2002). Early cognitive status and productivity outcome after traumatic brain injury: Findings from the TBI model systems. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 183–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Silver, J. M., & Yudofsky, S. C. (1994). Psychopharmacological approaches to the patient with affective and psychotic features. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 9(3), 61–77.Google Scholar
  165. Simpson, A., & Schmitter-Edgecombe, M. (2002). Prediction of employment status following traumatic brain injury using a behavioral measure of frontal lobe functioning. Brain Injury, 16, 1075–1091.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Snow, P., Douglas, J., & Ponsford, J. (1998). Conversational discourse abilities following severe traumatic brain injury: A follow up study. Brain Injury, 12(11), 911–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Temkin, N. R., Dikmen, S. S., Wilensky, A. J., Keihm, J., Chabal, S., & Winn, H. R. (1990). A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of posttraumatic seizures. New England Journal of Medicine, 323(8), 497–502.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Testa, J. A., Malec, J. F., Moessner, A. M., & Brown, A. W. (2005). Outcome after traumatic brain injury: Effects of aging on recovery. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1815–1823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Theodoros, D. G., Murdoch, B. E., & Goozee, J. V. (2001). Dysarthria following traumatic brain injury: Incidence, recovery and perceptual features. In B. E. Murdoch & D. G. Theodoros (Eds.), Traumatic brain injury: Associated speech, language and swallowing disorders (pp. 27–52). San Diego: Singular Publishing.Google Scholar
  170. Van Hout, B., Gagnon, D., Souétre, E., Ried, S., Remy, C., Baker, G., et al. (1997). Relationship between seizure frequency and costs and quality of life of outpatients with partial epilepsy in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Epilepsia, 38, 1221–1226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. van Kampen, P. J., Martina, J. D., Vos, P. E., Hoedemaekers, C. W., & Hendricks, H. T. (2011). Potential risk factors for developing heterotopic ossification in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 26(5), 384–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. van Velzen, J. M., van Bennekom, C. A. M., Edelaar, M. J. A., Sluiter, J. K., & Frings-Dresen, M. H. W. (2009). How many people return to work after acquired brain injury?: A systematic review. Brain Injury, 6(23), 473–488.Google Scholar
  173. Vanderploeg, R. D., Curtiss, G., Duchnick, J. J., & Luis, C. A. (2003). Demographic, medical, and psychiatric factors in work and marital status after mild head injury. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18, 148–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Verri, A. P., Proietti Cecchini, A., Galli, C., Granella, F., Sandrini, G., & Nappi, G. (1998). Psychiatric comorbidity in chronic daily headache. Cephalalgia, 18(Suppl 21), 45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Walker, W. C., Marwitz, J. H., Kreutzer, J. S., Hart, T., & Novack, T. A. (2006). Occupational categories and return to work after traumatic brain injury: A multicenter study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87, 1576–1582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Walker, W. C., & McDonald, S. D. (2011). Does neurologic examination during inpatient rehabilitation help predict global outcome after nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury? PM&R: The Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation, 3(1), 6–12.Google Scholar
  177. Walker, W. C., & Pickett, T. C. (2007). Motor impairment after severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal multicenter study. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 44(7), 975–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Walker, W. C., Seel, R. T., Curtiss, G., & Warden, D. L. (2005). Headache after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: A longitudinal analysis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(9), 1793–1800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Watanabe, T. (2004). The role of therapy in spasticity management. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83(10), S45–S49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. West, M., Targett, P., Yasuda, S., & Wehman, P. (2007). Return to work following TBI. In N. D. Zasler, D. I. Katz, & R. D. Zafonte (Eds.), Brian injury medicine: Principles and practice. New York: Demos.Google Scholar
  181. Wehman, P., Bricout, J., & Targett, P. (2000). Supported employment for people with traumatic brain injury. In R. Fraser & D. Clemmons (Eds.), Traumatic brain injury rehabilitation practical vocational, neuropsychological and psychotherapy interventions (pp. 201–239). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  182. Wehman, P., Goodman, M., McNamee, S. D., & Targett, P. S. (2011). Return to work following traumatic brain injury. In F. S. Zollman (Ed.), Manual of traumatic brain injury management (pp. 450–457). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  183. Wehman, P., Kregel, J., Keyser-Marcus, L., Sherron-Targett, P. D., Campbell, L., West, M., et al. (2003). Supported employment for persons with traumatic brain injury: A preliminary investigation of long-term follow up costs and program efficiency. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 84, 192–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wehman, P., Kreutzer, J. S., West, M. D., Sherron, P. D., Zasler, N. D., Groah, C. H., et al. (1990). Return to work for persons with traumatic brain injury: A supported employment approach. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 71, 1047–1052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wehman, P., Sherron, P., Kregel, J., Kreutzer, J., Tran, S., & Cifu, D. (1993). Return to work for persons following severe TBI: Supported employment outcomes after 5 years. American Journal of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 72, 355–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Wehman, P., Targett, P., West, M., & Kregel, J. (2005). Productive work and employment for persons with traumatic brain injury: What have we learned after 20 years? Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 20(2), 115–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Whyte, J. (1992). Neurologic disorders of attention and arousal: Assessment and treatment. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 73(11), 1094–1103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Whyte, J., Hart, T., Laborde, A., & Rosenthal, M. (2005). Rehabilitation issues in traumatic brain injury. In J. A. DeLisa, B. M. Gans, W. L. Bockenek, W. R. Frontera, L. H. Gerber, S. R. Geiringer, et al. (Eds.), Physical medicine and rehabilitation: Principles and practice (4th ed., pp. 1677–1713). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  189. Whyte, J., Hart, T., Vaccaro, M., Grieb-Neff, P., Risser, A., Polansky, M., et al. (2004). Effects of methylphenidate on attention deficits after traumatic brain injury. A multidimensional, randomized, controlled trial. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 83, 401–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Wilson, B. A., Cockburn, J., & Baddeley, A. D. (1985). The Rivermead behavioural memory tests. Edmunds: Bury St Thames Valley Tests.Google Scholar
  191. Witol, A. D., Sander, A. M., Seel, R. T., & Kreutzer, J. S. (1996). Long term neurobehavioral characteristics after brain injury: Implications for vocational rehabilitation. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 7, 159–167.Google Scholar
  192. Wroblewski, B. A., Joseph, A. B., Kupfer, J., & Kalliel, K. (1997). Effectiveness of valproic acid on destructive and aggressive behaviours in patients with acquired brain injury. Brain Injury, 11(1), 37–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Wu, R., Bao, J., Zhang, C., Deng, J., & Long, C. (2006). Comparison of sleep condition and sleep-related psychological activity after cognitive-behavior and pharmacological therapy for chronic insomnia. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 75(4), 220–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Yablon, S. A. (1993). Posttraumatic seizures. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74(9), 983–1001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Yablon, S. A., & Dostrow, V. G. (2007). Post traumatic seizures and epilepsy. In N. Zasler, D. Katz, & R. Zafonte (Eds.), Brain injury medicine (2nd ed., pp. 443–468). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  196. Yamaguchi, M. (1992). Incidence of headache and severity of head injury. Headache, 32(9), 427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Yasuda, S., Wehman, P., Targett, P., Cifu, D., & West, M. (2001). Return to work for persons with traumatic brain injury. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80(11), 852–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Ylvisaker, M., Jacobs, H. E., & Feeney, T. (2003). Positive supports for people who experience behavioral and cognitive disability after brain injury: A review. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 18(1), 7–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Yuen, H. K., & Benzing, P. (1996). Guiding of behavior through redirection in brain injury rehabilitation. Brain Injury, 10, 229–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Zafonte, R., Co, S., & Srikrishnan, A. (2011). Spasticity in traumatic brain injury. In A. Brashear & E. Elovic (Eds.), Spasticity diagnosis and management (pp. 371–386). New York: Demos Medical Publishing.Google Scholar
  201. Zafonte, R. D., Elovic, E., Mysiw, W. J., O’Dell, M., & Watanabe, T. (1999). Pharmacology in traumatic brain injury: Fundamentals and treatment strategies. In M. Rosenthal, E. R. Griffith, J. S. Kreutzer, & B. Pentland (Eds.), Rehabilitation of the adult and child with traumatic brain injury (3rd ed., pp. 544–548). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul H. Wehman
    • 1
  • Juan Carlos Arango-Lasprilla
    • 2
  • Richard D. Kunz
    • 2
  • Pamela D. Targett
    • 1
  1. 1.Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on Employment of People with Physical DisabilitiesVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVirginia Commonwealth UniversityRichmondUSA

Personalised recommendations