Advertisement

Teacher Formative Assessment: The Missing Link in Response to Intervention

  • Linda A. ReddyEmail author
  • Christopher M. Dudek
  • Elisa S. Shernoff
Chapter

Abstract

Response to intervention (RTI) focuses on the assessment, intervention, and progress monitoring of student academic performance and social behavior. Despite requiring highly qualified personnel for successful implementation, the implementation of RTI has not focused on applying its foundational principles towards promoting teacher effectiveness through assessment, intervention, and progress monitoring of teacher classroom practice. Compounding this problem is the lack of availability of reliable and valid teacher assessments to apply in an RTI model for teacher professional development. This chapter provides a rationale for applying RTI principles to teacher professional development and how teacher formative assessment can improve educator effectiveness, student learning, and social behaviors. The Classroom Strategies Scale (CSS), a new multidimensional assessment of instructional and behavioral management practices, is discussed as an example of one promising tool for promoting teachers’ professional development within an RTI model. We offer a synthesis of the theory, research, and evidence of reliability and validity of the CSS. The application of teacher formative assessment in job-embedded professional development/coaching models for schools is discussed. Finally, implications for practice and research are outlined.

Keywords

Professional Development Instructional Practice Classroom Observation Teacher Professional Development Corrective Feedback 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 261–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, J. L. (2010). IBM SPSS Amos 19 User’s Guide (pp. 587–590). Crawfordville: Amos Development Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, C.-L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Morgan, M. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61, 213–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnett, W. S. (2004). Better teachers, better preschools: Student achievement linked to teacher qualifications. http://nieer.org/resources/policybriefs/2.pdf. Accessed 30 Nov 2013.
  6. Batsche, G., Elliott, J., Graden, J. L., Grimes, J., Kovaleski, J. F., Prasse, D., et al. (2005). Response to intervention policy considerations and implementation. Reston: National Association of State Directors of Special Education.Google Scholar
  7. Batsche, G., Curtis, J., Dorman, C., Castillo, J., & Porter, L. J. (2008). The Florida problem solving/response to intervention model: Implementing a statewide initiative. In S. Jimerson, M. Burns, & A. VanDerHeyden (Eds.), Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 378–395). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Becker, K. D., Bradshaw, C. P., Domitrovich, C., & Ialongo, N. S. (2013). Coaching teachers to improve implementation of the good behavior game. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6), 482–493.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bender, W. N. (2008). Differentiating instruction for students with learning disabilities: Best teaching practices for general and special educators (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bender, W. N., & Shores, C. (2007). Response to intervention: A practical guide for every teacher. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bennet, N. (1988). The effective primary school teacher: The search for a theory of pedagogy. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4, 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benson, J. (1998). Developing a strong program of construct validation: A test anxiety example. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 1(7), 10–22.Google Scholar
  13. Blachowicz, C. L., Obrochta, C., & Fogelberg, E. (2005). Literacy coaching for change. Educational Leadership, 62(6), 55.Google Scholar
  14. Bowen, N. K., & Guo, S. (2012). Structural equation modeling. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Brophy, J. E. (1981). Teacher praise: A functional analysis. Review of Educational Research, 51(1), 5–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brophy, J. (1998). Motivating students to learn. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  17. Brophy, J., & Alleman, J. (1991). A caveat: Curriculum integration isn’t always a good idea. Educational, Leadership, 49(2), 66.Google Scholar
  18. Brophy, J. E., & Good, T. (1986). Teacher behavior and student achievement. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research in teaching (3rd ed., pp. 328–375). New York: Macmillian.Google Scholar
  19. Cantrell, S., & Kane, T. J. (2013). Ensuring fair and reliable measures of effective teaching: Culminating findings from the MET Project’s three-year study. www.metproject.org/downloads/MET_Ensuring_Fair_and_Reliable_Measures_Practitioner_Brief.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2013.
  20. Carlisle, J. F., Correnti, R., Phelps, G., & Zeng, J. (2009). Exploration of the contribution of teachers’ knowledge about reading to their students’ improvement in reading. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 22, 459–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chalk, K., & Bizo, L. A. (2004). Specific praise improves on-task behavior and numeracy enjoyment: A study of 4 pupils engaged in the numeracy hour. Educational psychology in Practice, 20, 335–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chunn, M., & Witt, J. (2008). System to enhance educational performance. http://www.isteep.com/index.html. Accessed 25 Nov 2013.
  23. Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers’ thought processes. In M. C. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  24. Connor, C. M., Son, S. H., Hindman, A., & Morrison, F. J. (2005). Teacher qualifications, classroom practices, and family characteristics: Complex effects on first graders’ language and early reading. Journal of School Psychology, 43, 343–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Crawford, A. D., Zucker, T. A., Williams, J. M., Bhavsar, V., & Landry, S. H. (in press). Initial validation of the pre-kindergarten classroom observational tool and goal setting system for data-based coaching. School Psychology Quarterly.Google Scholar
  26. Creemers, B. P. M. (1994). The effective classroom. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  27. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (1986). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
  28. Danielson, C., & McGreal, T. L. (2000). Teacher evaluation to enhance professional learning. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  29. Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis and Archives, 8(1), 1–44.Google Scholar
  30. Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M. G., Sheldon, S. B., Simon, B. S., Salinas, K. C., Jansorn, N. R., Van Voorhis, F. L., Martin, C. S., Thomas, B. G., Greenfeld, M. D., Hutchins, D. J., & Williams, K. J. (2008). School, family, and community partnerships: Youth handbook for action (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  31. Espinosa, L. M. (2002). Preschool policy matters; High-quality preschool: Why we need it and what it looks like. http://nieer.org/resources/policybriefs/1.pdf. Accessed 30 Nov 2013.
  32. Fuchs, D., & Fuchs, L. S. (2006). Introduction to response to intervention: What, why, and how valid is it? Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 93–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gable, R., Hester, P., Rock, M., & Hughes, K. (2009). Back to basics: Rules, praise, ignoring, and reprimands revisited. Intervention in School & Clinic, 44(4), 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gage, N. L. (1978). The scientific basis of the art of teaching. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  35. Gersten, R., Chard, D. J., & Baker, S. (2000). Factors enhancing sustained use of research-based instructional practices. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Glover, T. A., & DiPerna, J. C. (2007). Service delivery for Response to Intervention: Core components and directions for future research. School Psychology Review, 36, 526–542.Google Scholar
  37. Good, T. L., & Brophy, J. (1980). Educational psychology: A realistic approach (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  38. Griffiths, A., Burns, M. K., Parson, L. B., Tilly, W. D., & VanDerHeyden, A. (2007). Response to intervention: Research for practice. Alexandria: National Association of State Directors of Special Education.Google Scholar
  39. Harris, A. (1998). Effective teaching: A review of the literature. School Leadership & Management, 18, 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of Educational Research, 77, (1), 81–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hattie, J., Biggs, J., & Purdie, N. (1996). Effects of learning skills interventions on students learning: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 66(2), 99–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Heneman, H. G. III, & Milanowski, A. (2004). Alignment of human resource practices and teacher performance competency. Peabody Journal of Education, 79(4), 108–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hines, C. V., Cruickshank, D. R., & Kennedy, J. J. (1985). Teacher clarity and its relationship to student achievement and satisfaction. American Educational Research Journal, 22, 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Individuals With Disabilities Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1400 (2004). Google Scholar
  45. Jackson, D. L., Gillapsy, J. A., & Purc-Stephenson, R. (2009). Reporting practices in confirmatory factor analysis: An overview and some recommendations. Psychological Methods, 14, 6–23.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Jackson, S., Pretti-Frontczak, K., Harsjusola-Webb, S., Grisham-Brown, J., & Romani, J. (2009). Response to intervention: Implications for early childhood professionals. Language, Speech and Hearing Disorders in Schools, 40, 1–11.Google Scholar
  47. Jimerson, S. R., Burns, M. K., & VanDerHeyden, A. M. (2007). Handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, S. M. (1990). Teachers at work: Achieving success in our schools. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  49. Joyce, B., & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through staff development (3rd ed.). Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  50. Kane, M. (2002). Validating high-stakes testing programs. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 21, 31–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kane, M. (2008). Terminology, emphasis, and utility in validation [Peer Commentary on the paper A suggested change in terminology and emphasis regarding validity and education]. Educational Researcher, 37(2), 76–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering feedback for teaching: Combining high-quality observations with student surveys and achievement gains. MET Research Paper. Seattle, Washington: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. http://www.metproject.org/downloads/MET_Gathering_Feedback_Research_Paper.pdf. 16 July 2012.
  53. Kern, L., & Clemmens, N. H. (2007). Antecedent strategies to promote appropriate classroom behavior. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Klinger, J. K., & Edwards, P. A. (2006). Cultural considerations with response to intervention models. Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 108–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kretlow, A. G., & Bartholomew, C. C. (2010). Using coaching to improve fidelity of evidence-based practices: A review of studies. Teacher Education and Special Education, 33, 279–299.Google Scholar
  56. Leigh, A. (2010). Estimating teacher effectiveness from two-year changes in students’ test scores. Economics of Education Review, 29, 480–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marzano, R. J. (1998). A theory-based meta-analysis of research on instruction. Aurora: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED 427 087).Google Scholar
  58. Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., & Pollock, J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  59. Marzano, R. J., Frontier, T., & Livingston, D. (2011). Effective supervision: Supporting the art and science of teaching. Alexandria: ASCD.Google Scholar
  60. Medley, D. M., & Coker, H. (1987). The accuracy of principals’ judgments of teacher performance. Journal of Educational Research, 80(4), 242–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mellard, D. F., McKnight, M., & Woods, K. (2009). Response to intervention screening and progress-monitoring practices in 41 local schools. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24(4) 186–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nadeem, E., Gleacher, A., & Beidas, R. S. (2013). Consultation as an implementation strategy for evidence-based practices across multiple contexts: Unpacking the black box. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40(6), 530–540.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. National Association of State Directors of Special Education. (2007). Policy considerations and implementation and response to intervention: NASDSE and CASE white paper on RTI. www.nasdse.org. Accessed 10 Nov 2013.
  64. National Center on Response to Intervention. (2010). Essential components of RTI—A closer look at response to intervention. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Response to Intervention.Google Scholar
  65. National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf. Accessed 11 Nov 2013.
  66. National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the national reading panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  67. National Research Council. (2001). Educating children with autism. committee on educational interventions for children with autism. In L. Catherine & J. P. McGee (Eds.), Division of behavioral and social sciences and education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  68. Nye, B., Konstantopoulos, S., & Hedges, L. V. (2004). How large are teacher effects? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 26(3), 237–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Odden, A., & Kelly, J. (2008). Strategic management of human capital in public education. Madison: University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Center for Education Research, Consortium for Policy Research in Education, Strategic Management of Human Capital.Google Scholar
  70. Partin, T., Robertson, R., Maggin, D., Oliver, R., & Wehby, J. (2010). Using teacher praise and opportunities to respond to promote appropriate student behavior. Preventing School Failure, 54, 172–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pianta, R. C., La Paro, K. M., & Hamre, B. K. (2008). Classroom assessment scoring system [CLASS] manual: Pre-K. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.Google Scholar
  72. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Downer, J. (2011). Aligning measures of quality with professional development goals and goals for children’s development. In M. Zaslow, I. Martinez-Beck, K. Tout, & T. Halle (Eds.), Quality measurement in early childhood settings (pp. 297–315). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  73. Reddy, L. A., & Dudek, C. (2014). Teacher progress monitoring of instructional and behavioral management practices: An evidence-based approach to improving classroom practices. International Journal of School and Educational Psychology, 2, 71–84.Google Scholar
  74. Reddy, L., Fabiano, G., Barbarasch, B., & Dudek, C. (2012). Behavior management of students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders using teacher and student progress monitoring. In L.M. Crothers & J.B. Kolbert (Eds.), Understanding and managing behaviors of children with psychological disorders: A reference for classroom teachers. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc.Google Scholar
  75. Reddy, L. A., Fabiano, G., Dudek, C., & Hsu, L. (2013a). Development and construct validation of the classroom strategies scale–observer form. School Psychology Quarterly, 28, 317–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Reddy, L. A., Fabiano, G., Dudek, C. M., & Hsu, L. (2013b). Predictive validity of the classroom strategies scale–observer form on statewide testing. School Psychology Quarterly, 28, 301–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Reddy, L. A., Fabiano, G., Dudek, C., & Hsu, L. (2013c). Instructional and behavior management practices implemented by elementary general education teachers. Journal of School Psychology, 51(6), 683–700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Reddy, L., Fabiano, G., & Jimerson, S. (2013). Assessment of general education teachers’ tier 1 classroom practices: Current science and practice. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(4), 273–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Reddy, L. A., Fabiano, G., & Dudek, C. (2013). Concurrent validity of the classroom strategies scale–observer form. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 31(3), 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Reddy, L. A., Kettler, R. J., & Kurz, A. (2015). School-wide educator evaluation for improving school capacity and student achievement in high poverty schools: Year 1 of the school system improvement project. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation.Google Scholar
  81. Reddy, L. A., Newman, E., & Verdesco, A. (2015a). Students with ADHD: Using self-regulated learning interventions and student and teacher formative assessment. In T. Cleary (Ed.), Self-regulated learning interventions with at-risk populations: Academic, mental health, and contextual considerations. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  82. Reddy, L. A., Newman, E. & Verdesco, A. (2015b). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders: Using cognitive behavioral interventions and teacher formative assessment in schools. In R. Flanagan & C. Allen (Eds.), Cognitive behavioral therapies for children in schools. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. Reddy, L. A., Dudek, C. M., Fabiano, G., & Peters, S. (2015c). Measuring teacher self-report on classroom practices: Construct validity and reliability of the Classroom Strategies Scale – Teacher Form. School Psychology Quarterly.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), 417–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. American Economic Review, 94(2) 247–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosenshine, B., & Stevens, R. (1986). Teaching functions. In M. C. Witrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed., pp. 376–391). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  87. Sanders, W. L. (2000). Value-added assessment from student achievement data: Opportunities and hurdles. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 14(4), 329–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Scheerens, J. (1992). Effective schooling: Research, theory, and practice. London: Cassell.Google Scholar
  89. Schloss, P. J., & Smith, M. A. (1998). Applied behavior analysis in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  90. Scott, S. E., Cortina, K. S., & Carlisle, J. F. (2012). Understanding coach-based professional development in reading first: How do coaches spend their time and how do teachers perceive coaches’ work? Literacy Research and Instruction, 51(1), 68–85. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19388071.2011.569845.
  91. Shernoff, E. S., Marinez-Lora, A., Frazier, S. L., Jakobsons, L. J., Atkins, M. S., & Bonner, D. (2011a). Teachers supporting teachers in urban schools: What iterative research designs can teach us. School Psychology Review, 40, 465–485.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Shernoff, E. S., Mehta, T. G., Atkins, M. S., Torf, R., & Spencer, J. (2011b). A qualitative study of the sources and impact of stress among urban teachers. School Mental Health, 3(2), 59–69. doi:10.1007/s12310-011-9051-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Shernoff, E. S., Lakind, D., Frazier, S. L., & Jakobsons, L. (2015). Coaching early career teachers in urban elementary schools: A mixed method study. School Mental Health, 7, 6–20. doi:10.1007/s12310-014-9136.Google Scholar
  94. Shernoff, E. S., Jakobsons, L., Lakind, D., Frazier, S. L., Marinez-Lora, A., Hamre, B. K., Patel, D., Atkins, M. S., Parker Katz, M., Neal, J., & Smylie, M. (under review). Enhancing urban early career teachers’ effectiveness and connectedness: A mixed method study. Manuscript submitted for publication to American Education Research Journal.Google Scholar
  95. Stitcher, J. P., Lewis, T. J., Whittaker, T. A., Richter, M., Johnson, N., & Trussell, R. (2009). Assessing teacher use of opportunities to respond and effective classroom management strategies. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 11, 68–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sutherland, K. S., Wehby, J. H., & Yoder, P. J. (2002). Examination of the relationship between teacher praise and opportunities for students with EBD to respond to academic requests. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(1), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sutherland, K. S., Adler, N., & Gunter, P. L. (2003). The effect of varying rates of opportunities to respond to academic requests on the classroom behavior of students with EBD. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 11, 239–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Toch, T., & Rothman, R. (2008). Rush to judgment: Teacher evaluation in public education. Washington, DC: Education Sector.Google Scholar
  99. Tomlinson, C. A., & Edison, C. C. (2003). Differentiation in practice: A resource guide for differentiating curriculum, grades K-5. Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  100. Tomlinson, C. A., & McTighe, C. A. (2006). Integrating differentiated instruction (DI) and understanding by design (UbD). Alexandria: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  101. Walberg, H. J. (1986). Synthesis of research on teaching. In M. Wittorck (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  102. Wang, M. C. (1991). Productive teaching and instruction: Assessing the knowledge base. Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 470–478.Google Scholar
  103. Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walhberg, H. J. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational Research, 63, 249–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ward, B. (1985). Teacher development: The challenge of the future. In S. Hord, S. O’ Neal, & M. Smith (Eds.), Beyond the looking glass (pp. 283–312). Austin: The Research and Development Center for Teacher Education, The University of Texas.Google Scholar
  105. Weisberg, D., Sexton, S., Mulhern, J., & Keeling, D. (2009). The widget effect: Our national failure to acknowledge and act on differences in teacher effectiveness. http://widgeteffect.org/. Accessed 2 June 2009.
  106. White, M. A. (1975). Natural rates of teacher approval and disapproval in the classroom. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 8, 367–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wittrock, M. C. (1986). Handbook of research on teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Linda A. Reddy
    • 1
    Email author
  • Christopher M. Dudek
    • 1
  • Elisa S. Shernoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Rutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations