The purpose of this chapter is to describe tier 3 reading interventions used for primary grade students (in kindergarten through third grade). Within multi-tier response-to-intervention systems, tier 3 is reserved for the very few students with the most persistent reading difficulties, having demonstrated significant difficulties in learning to read even with tier 1 and tier 2 supports. As explained in greater detail, tier 3 may be a last layer of intervention in general education that serves as part of a prereferral process or it may be special education. Following the description of the conceptual framework for the chapter, and the discussion of variability in tier 3 implementation, the literature is reviewed to learn whether it is known what is necessary and sufficient to help students who are struggling to read, including students with reading or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. Implications for research are discussed and directions for future research are identified.
- Primary Grade Students
- Brief Experimental Analysis (BEAs)
- Oral Reading Fluency
- Core Reading Program
- English Language Learners (ELLs)
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Al Otaiba, S., Allor, J., Ortiz, M., Greulich, L., Wanzek, J., Torgesen, J. (2016). Tier 3 Primary Grade Reading Interventions: Can We Distinguish Necessary from Sufficient?. In: Jimerson, S., Burns, M., VanDerHeyden, A. (eds) Handbook of Response to Intervention. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4899-7568-3_23
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