Tier 3 Primary Grade Reading Interventions: Can We Distinguish Necessary from Sufficient?

  • Stephanie Al OtaibaEmail author
  • Jill Allor
  • Miriam Ortiz
  • Luana Greulich
  • Jeanie Wanzek
  • Joseph Torgesen


The purpose of this chapter is to describe tier 3 reading interventions used for primary grade students (in kindergarten through third grade). Within multi-tier response-to-intervention systems, tier 3 is reserved for the very few students with the most persistent reading difficulties, having demonstrated significant difficulties in learning to read even with tier 1 and tier 2 supports. As explained in greater detail, tier 3 may be a last layer of intervention in general education that serves as part of a prereferral process or it may be special education. Following the description of the conceptual framework for the chapter, and the discussion of variability in tier 3 implementation, the literature is reviewed to learn whether it is known what is necessary and sufficient to help students who are struggling to read, including students with reading or mild-to-moderate intellectual disabilities. Implications for research are discussed and directions for future research are identified.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephanie Al Otaiba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jill Allor
    • 1
  • Miriam Ortiz
    • 1
  • Luana Greulich
    • 2
  • Jeanie Wanzek
    • 3
  • Joseph Torgesen
    • 3
  1. 1.Southern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA
  2. 2.Andrews UniversityBerrien SpringsUSA
  3. 3.Florida Center for Reading ResearchFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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