Implementation of Tier 2 Reading Interventions in the Primary Grades

  • Jeanne WanzekEmail author
  • Stephanie Al Otaiba
  • Brandy Gatlin


There is strong research evidence and a clear convergence of findings that providing Tier 2 interventions for students with reading difficulties in the primary grades is an effective practice. In this chapter, the current research and practice for implementing Tier 2 interventions are examined. First, the research-based recommendations for implementation of Tier 2 intervention at the early elementary level are reviewed. Both content and delivery aspects of intervention implementation are investigated. Then, survey and observational data regarding current implementation of Tier 2 interventions in practice and the extent to which current practice aligns with the research base are examined. Finally, a study of a hybrid Tier 1 and 2 intervention and its effects on the early literacy outcomes of kindergarten students at risk for reading difficulties are presented. Implications and direction for future research on the implementation of Tier 2 interventions are discussed.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeanne Wanzek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stephanie Al Otaiba
    • 2
  • Brandy Gatlin
    • 3
  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Southern Methodist UniversityDallasUSA
  3. 3.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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