Classroom Reading Instruction for All Students
How well students respond to reading instruction in the classroom is instrumental in determining their academic outcomes. This chapter explains why this first tier of instruction in the classroom is at a critical juncture with the adoption of rigorous college and career readiness standards (e.g., the common core state standards in English language arts and literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects; ELA CCSS for short). First, the ELA CCSS is overviewed and the key constructs of academic language, text complexity, and perspective taking are discussed. Second, the research-based practices in primary-grade reading instruction for teaching academic language skills, providing explicit instruction in the alphabetic skills, teaching word analysis skills, and ensuring daily practice in text reading with and without feedback in order to build accuracy, fluency, and comprehension are reviewed. Third, the research-based practices for content-area tier 1 reading instruction in the secondary grades are discussed. Specifically, the chapter focuses on providing explicit vocabulary and comprehension instruction, ensuring opportunities for extended discussion of text, and increasing student motivation and engagement in literacy learning. The authors conclude with a table summarizing best practices for tier 1 reading instruction.
KeywordsReading Comprehension Reading Instruction Common Core State Standard Academic Language Vocabulary Instruction
The research reported here was supported by the Institute of Education Sciences, the US Department of Education, through sub awards to two grants: (1) a sub award to Florida State University (FSU) from Grant R305F100005 to the Educational Testing Service as part of the Reading for Understanding Initiative and (2) a sub award to FSU from Grant R305F100013 to the University of Texas at Austin. The opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not represent views of the Institute, the US Department of Education, the Educational Testing Service, The University of Texas at Austin, or The Florida State University.
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