Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  • Theresa Kruczek
  • Stephanie Vitanza
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter reviews theoretical models of trauma reactions in adolescents. The revised diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are summarized. The individual, family, social, and community factors affecting risk and resilience are explored. There is an emerging credible body of support for a variety of interventions in both community and residential settings. This research is reviewed and recommendations for best practices are summarized. Further, the biological basis of PTSD symptoms is reviewed as is the research on psychopharmacological interventions for youth experiencing these symptoms. Finally, the chapter addresses some emerging models for the prevention of PTSD symptoms in adolescents.

Keywords

Traumatic Event Child Sexual Abuse Ptsd Symptom Trauma Exposure Posttraumatic Stress Symptom 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abram, K., Washburn, J., Teplin, L., Emanuel, K., Romero, E., & McClelland, G. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder and co-morbitity in detained youth. Psychiatric Services, 58(10), 1311.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aderka, I. M., Appelbaum-Namdar, E., Shafran, N., & Gilboa-Schechtman, E. (2011). Sudden gains in prolonged exposure for children and adolescents with post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(4), 441–446.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alderfer, M. A., Navsaria, N., & Kazak, A. E. (2009). Family functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(5), 717–725. doi: 10.1037/a0015996.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amaya-Jackson, L., & March, J. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents: Risk factors, diagnosis, and intervention. Adolescent Medicine, 6, 251–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., revised). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  9. Arroyo, W. (2001). PTSD in children and adolescents in the juvenile justice system. In S. Eth (Ed.), PTSD in children and adolescents (pp. 59–85). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. Avinger, K. A., & Jones, R. A. (2007). Group treatment of sexually abused adolescent girls: A review of outcome studies. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 35, 315–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bisson, J. I., & Lewis, C. (2012). Systematic review of psychological first aid. Retrieved June 1, 2012 from http://www.who.int/mental_health/mhgap/evidence/resource/other_complaints_q6.pdf
  12. Bloom, M., & Gullotta, T. (2003). Evolving definitions of primary prevention. In T. P. Gullotta & M. Bloom (Eds.), Encyclopedia of primary prevention and health promotion (pp. 9–14). New York, NY: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bokszczanin, A. (2008). Parental support, family conflict, and overprotectiveness: Predicting PTSD symptom levels of adolescents 28 months after a natural disaster. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 21(4), 325–335. doi: 10.1080/10615800801950584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Breuer, J., & Freud, S. (1955). Studies on hysteria. In The standard edition (Vol. 2). London, UK: Hogarth Press. (Original work published 1895).Google Scholar
  15. Briere, J. (1997). Psychological assessment of adult posttraumatic states. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Briere, J., & Scott, C. (2013). Principles of trauma therapy: A guide to symptoms, evaluation, and treatment (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  17. Briggs, E. C., Fairbank, J. A., Greeson, J. K., Layne, C. M., Steinberg, A. M., Amaya-Jackson, L. M., et al. (2012). Links between child and adolescent trauma exposure and service use histories in a national clinic-referred sample. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 5(2), 101–109. doi: 10.1037/a0027312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bryant, R. A., & Harvey, A. G. (2000). Acute stress disorder: A handbook of theory, assessment, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  19. Carbonell, D. M., & Parteleno-Barehimi, C. (1999). Psychodrama groups for girls coping with trauma. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 49(3), 285–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Carlier, I. V., Voerman, A. E., & Gersons, B. P. (2000). The influence of occupational debriefing on post-traumatic stress symptomatology in traumatized police officers. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 78, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Charmandari, E., Tsigos, C., & Chorousos, G. P. (2005). Endocrinology of the stress response. Annual Review of Physiology, 67, 259–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2007). Personality, adrenal steroid hormones, and resilience in maltreated children: A multilevel perspective. Development and Psychopathology, 19, 787–809.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (2012). Gene X environment interaction and resilience: Effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 411–427.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Choe, I. (2005). The debate over psychological debriefing for PTSD. The New School Psychology Bulletin, 3(2), 71–81.Google Scholar
  25. Clark, D. B., & Miller, T. W. (1998). Stress response and adaptation in children: Theoretical models. In T. W. Miller (Ed.), Children of trauma: Stressful life events and their effects on children and adolescents (pp. 3–29). Madison, CT: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  26. Cohen, J. A. (1998). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 4S–26S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, J. A. (2010). Practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(4), 414–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Cohen, J. A., Berliner, L., & March, J. S. (2000). Treatment of children and adolescents. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (pp. 106–138). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  29. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A., Perel, J., & Staron, V. (2007). A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(7), 811–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., & Deblinger, E. (2006). Treating trauma and traumatic grief in children and adolescents. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  31. Copeland, W. E., Keeler, G., Angold, A., & Costello, J. (2007). Traumatic events and posttraumatic stress in children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(5), 577–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cooley-Quille, M., Boyd, R. C., Frantz, E., & Walsh, J. (2001). Emotional and behavioral impact of exposure to community violence in inner-city adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(1), 199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Courtois, C. (2003, March). Advances in trauma treatment. Paper presented at the 26th annual networker symposium, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  34. Davidson, S., & Smith, R. (1990). Traumatic experiences in psychiatric outpatients. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 3, 459–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Davis, L., & Siegel, L. J. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: A review and analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3(3), 135–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. DeBellis, M. D., Hooper, S. R., Spratt, E. G., & Wooley, D. P. (2009). Neuropsychological findings in childhood neglect and their relationships to pediatric PTSD. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15(6), 868–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. DeBellis, M. D., & Thomas, L. A. (2003). Biological findings of posttraumatic stress disorder and child maltreatment. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5, 108–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. de Silva, P. (1999). Cultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder. In W. Yule (Ed.), Post traumatic stress disorders: Concepts and therapy (pp. 116–137). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. DiNicola, V. F. (1996). Ethnocultural aspects of PTSD and related disorders among children and adolescents. In A. J. Marsella, M. J. Friedman, E. T. Gerrity, & R. M. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder (pp. 389–414). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Donnelly, C. I., Amaya-Jackson, L., & March, J. S. (1999). Psychopharmacology of pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 9(3), 203–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Dorsey, S., Briggs, E. C., & Woods, B. A. (2011). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 20(2), 255–269.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Drury, S. S., & Henry, C. (2012). Evidenced-based treatment of PTSD in children and adolescents: Where does psychopharmacology fit? Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology News, 17(3), 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Duarte, C. S., Wu, P., Cheung, A., Mandell, D. J., Fan, B., Wicks, J., et al. (2011). Media use by children and adolescents from New York City 6 months after the WTC attack. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(5), 553–556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dube, S. R., Anda, R. F., Whitfield, C. L., Brown, D. W., Felitti, V. J., Dong, M., et al. (2005). Long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse by gender of victim. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 28(5), 430–438. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2005.01.015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Eksi, A., Braun, K. L., Ertem-Vehid, H., Peykerli, G., Saydam, R., Toparlak, D., et al. (2007). Risk factors for the development of PTSD and depression among child and adolescent victims following a 7.4 magnitude earthquake. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 11(3), 190–199. doi: 10.1080/13651500601017548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Elklit, A. (2002). Victimization and PTSD in a Danish national youth probability sample. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(2), 174–181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Famularo, R., Kinscherff, R., & Fenton, T. (1988). Propranalol treatment for childhood PTSD acute type. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 142, 1244–1247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Figley, C. R. (1988). A five-phase treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in families. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 1, 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (2000). Introduction. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (pp. 106–138). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  50. Food and Drug Administration. (2003). Reports of suicidality in pediatric patients being treated with antidepressant medications for major depressive disorder. Retrieved January 13, 2004, from http://www.fda.gov/cder/drug/advisory/mdd.htm
  51. Friedman, M. J. (1990). Interrelationships between biological mechanisms and pharmacotherapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. In M. E. Wolfe & A. D. Mosnian (Eds.), Posttraumatic stress disorder: Etiology, phenomenology, and treatment (pp. 204–225). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  52. Friedman, M. J. (1998). Current and future drug treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder patients. Psychiatric Annals, 28, 461–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garrison, C. Z., Bryant, E. S., Addy, C. L., Spurrier, P. G., Freedy, J. R., & Kilpatrick, D. G. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in adolescents after Hurricane Andrew. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(9), 1193–1201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ghanizadeh, A., & Tavassoli, M. (2007). Gender comparison of exposed trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community sample of adolescents. Journal of Trauma Nursing, 14(3), 165–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gilboa-Schechtman, E., Foa, E. B., Shafran, N., Aderka, I. M., Powers, M. B., Rachamim, L., et al. (2010). Prolonged exposure vs. dynamic therapy for adolescent PTSD: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 1034–1042.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gonzales, N., & Kim, L. (1997). Stress and coping in an ethnic minority context. In S. A. Wlochik & I. N. Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children’s coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 481–511). New York, NY: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hall, M., & Hall, J. (2011). The long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse: Counseling implications. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas11/Article_19.pdf
  58. Hamblen, J., & Barnett, E. (2012). PTSD in children and adolescents. Retrieved September 3, 2013 from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/ptsd_in_children_and_adolescents_overview_for_professionals.asp
  59. Harmon, R. J., & Riggs, P. D. (1996). Clinical perspectives: Clonidine for PTSD in preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1247–1249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris, C. J. (1991). A family crisis-intervention model for the treatment of posttraumatic stress reaction. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4, 195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Harvey, S. T., & Taylor, J. E. (2010). A meta-analysis of the effects of psychotherapy with sexually abused children and adolescents. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 517–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hoffman, M. A., & Kruczek, T. (2011). A bioecological model of mass trauma: Individual, community and societal effects. The Counseling Psychologist, 39, 1087–1127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Horowitz, K., Weine, S., & Jekel, J. (1995). PTSD symptoms in urban adolescent girls. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(10), 1353–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Horrigan, J. P. (1996). Guanfacine for post traumatic stress disorder nightmares. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(8), 975–976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hunter, J. A. (2010). Prolonged exposure treatment of chronic PTSD in juvenile sex offenders: Promising results from two case studies. Child and Youth Care Forum, 39(5), 367–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Hunter, K. L., Martens, P. M., & Belcher, H. M. E. (2011). Risky business: Trauma exposure and rate of posttraumatic stress disorder in African American children and adolescents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(3), 365–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jacobson, C. M., Muehlenkamp, J. J., Miller, A. L., & Turner, J. B. (2008). Psychiatric impairment among adolescents engaging in different types of deliberate self-harm. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 37(2), 363–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kant, R., Chalansani, R., Chengappa, R., & Dieringer, M. F. (2004). The off-label use of clozapine in adolescents with bipolar disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 14(1), 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Keeshin, B. R., & Strawn, J. R. (2012). Treatment of children and adolescents with postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A review of current evidence. Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology News, 17(2), 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kiser, L., Heston, J., Hickerson, S., & Millsap, P. (1993). Anticipatory stress in children and adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(1), 87–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Klingman, A. (2001). Prevention of anxiety disorders: The case of posttraumatic stress disorder. In W. K. Silverman & P. D. A. Treffers (Eds.), Anxiety disorders in children and adolescents: Research, assessment and intervention (pp. 368–391). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Koenen, K. D., Uddin, M., Chang, S. C., Aiello, A. E., Wildman, D. E., Goldmann, E., et al. (2011). SLC6A4 methylation modifies the effect of the number of traumatic events on risk for posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 28(8), 639–640.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Koller, E., Malozowski, S., & Doraiswamy, M. P. (2001). Atypical antipsychotic drugs in adolescents. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 2547–2548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kramer, D. N., & Landolt, M. A. (2011). Characteristics and efficacy of early psychological interventions in children and adolescents after single trauma: A meta-analysis. The European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 2, 1–24. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v2i0.7858.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kruczek, T., & Vitanza, S. (1999). Treatment effects with an adolescent abuse survivor’s group. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(5), 477–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kruczek, T., & Watson, W. (1995). The efficacy of group therapy with sexually abused adolescent females. Unpublished manuscript.Google Scholar
  77. LaGreca, A. M., & Silverman, W. K. (2009). Treatments and prevention of posttraumatic stress reactions to children and adolescents exposed to disasters and terrorism: What is the evidence? Child Development Perspectives, 3(1), 4–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Loof, D., Grimley, P., Kuller, F., Martin, A., & Schonfield, L. (1995). Carbamazepine for PTSD. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 334(6), 703–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lyshak-Stelzer, F., Singer, P., St. John, P., & Chemtob, C. (2007). Art therapy for adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: A pilot study. Art Therapy: Journal of the American Art Therapy Association, 24(4), 163–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. MacKay, B., Gold, M., & Gold, E. (1987). A pilot study in drama therapy with adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 14, 77–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Margolin, G., & Vickerman, K. A. (2011). Posttraumatic stress in children and adolescents exposed to family violence: I. overview and issues. Couple and Family Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(6), 63–73. doi: 10.1037/2160-4096.1.s.63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Meighen, K. G., Hines, L. A., & Lagges, A. M. (2007). Resperidone treatment of preschool children with thermal burns and acute stress disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 17(2), 223–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McCloskey, L. A., & Walker, M. (2000). Posttraumatic stress in children exposed to family violence and single-event trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(1), 108–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McElroy, L. P., & McElroy, R. A. (1989). Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy with sexually abused children. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 11(3), 244–258.Google Scholar
  85. McMackin, R. A., Leisen, M. B., Sattler, L., Krinsley, K., & Riggs, D. S. (2002). Preliminary development of trauma-focused treatment groups for incarcerated juvenile offenders. In R. Greenwald (Ed.), Trauma and juvenile delinquency: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 175–199). Binghampton, NY: Hayworth Press.Google Scholar
  86. McNally, R. J., Bryant, R. A., & Ehlers, A. (2003). Does early psychological intervention promote recovery from posttraumatic stress? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(2), 45–79.Google Scholar
  87. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency. (2003). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs): Overview of regulatory status and CSM advice relating to major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents including a summary of available safety and efficacy data. Retrieved December 10, 2013 from http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Safetyinformation/Safetywarningsalertsandrecalls/Safetywarningsandmessagesformedicines/CON019494
  88. Meiser-Stedman, R., Smith, P., Glucksman, E., Yule, W., & Dagleish, T. (2008). The PTSD diagnosis in preschool and elementary school age children exposed to motor vehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165(10), 1326–1337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Moretti, M. M., Obsuth, I., Odgers, C. L., & Reebye, P. (2006). Exposure to maternal vs. paternal partner violence, PTSD, and aggression in adolescent girls and boys. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Norris, F. H., Foster, J. D., & Weisshar, D. L. (2002). The epidemiology of sex differences in PTSD across developmental, social, and research contexts. In R. Kimmerling, P. Ouimette, & J. Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 3–42). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  91. O’Donahue, W., Fanetti, M., & Elliott, A. (1998). Trauma in children. In V. M. Follette, J. I. Ruzek, & F. R. Abueg (Eds.), Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma (pp. 355–382). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  92. Okundaye, J. N. (2004). Drug trafficking and urban African American youth: Risk factors for PTSD. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21(3), 285–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pandit, S., & Shah, L. (2000). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Causes and aetiological factors. In K. N. Dwivedi (Ed.), Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents (pp. 25–38). London, UK: Whurr Publishers.Google Scholar
  94. Paxton, K. C., Robing, W. L., Shah, S., & Schoeny, M. E. (2004). Psychological distress for African-American adolescent males: Exposure to community violence and social support as factors. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 34(4), 281–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Perry, B. D. (1994). Neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma: PTSD in children. In M. M. Murburg (Ed.), Catecholamine function in posttraumatic stress disorder: Emerging concepts (pp. 223–255). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  96. Pervanidou, P. (2008). Biology of post-traumatic stress disorder in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Neuroendocrinology, 20, 632–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pfefferbaum, B. (2001). The impact of the Oklahoma City bombing on children in the community. Military Medicine, 166(12), 49–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Polusny, M. A., Ries, B. J., Meis, L. A., DeGarmo, D., & McCormick-Deaton, C. M. (2011). Effects of parents’ experiential avoidance and PTSD on adolescent disaster-related posttraumatic stress symptomatology. Journal of Family Psychology, 25(2), 220–229. doi: 10.1037/a0022945.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pynoos, R. S. (1994). Traumatic stress and developmental psychopathology in children and adolescents. In R. S. Pynoos (Ed.), Posttraumatic stress disorder: A clinical review (pp. 64–98). Lutherville, MD: The Sidran Press.Google Scholar
  100. Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Layne, C. M., Briggs, E. C., Ostrowski, S. A., & Fairbank, J. A. (2009). DSM-V PTSD diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents: A developmental perspective and recommendations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22(5), 391–398. doi: 10.1002/jts.20450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rabalais, A. E., Ruggiero, K. J., & Scotti, J. R. (2002). Multicultural issues in the response of children to disasters. In A. M. LaGreca, W. K. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 73–100). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Riggs, D. (2000). Marital and family therapy. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (pp. 280–301). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  103. Robb, A., Cueva, J., Sporn, J., Yang, R., & Vanderburg, D. (2010). Sertraline treatment of children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder: A double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 20(6), 464–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Robert, R., Blackeney, P. E., Villareal, C., Rosenbert, L., & Meyer, W. J. (1999). Imipramine treatment in pediatric burn patients with symptoms of adult stress disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 38, 873–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Robert, R., Tcheung, W. J., Rosenberg, L., Rosenberg, M., Mitchell, C., Villarreal, C., et al. (2008). Treatment of thermally injured children suffering symptoms of acute stress with imipramine and fluoxetine: A random, double-blind study. Burns, 34(7), 919–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rodenburg, R., Benjamin, A., deRoos, C., Meijer, A. M., & Stams, G. J. (2009). Efficacy of EMDR in children: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 599–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Rolfsnes, E. S., & Idsoe, T. (2011). School-based intervention programs for PTSD symptoms: A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24(2), 155–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rowe, C. L., La Greca, A. M., & Alexandersson, A. (2010). Family and individual factors associated with substance involvement and PTS symptoms among adolescents in greater New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(6), 806–817. doi: 10.1037/a0020808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Saylor, C. F., Cowart, B. L., Lipovsky, J. A., Jackson, C., & Finch, A. J. (2003). Media exposure to September 11: Elementary school students’ experiences and posttraumatic symptoms. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 1622–1642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Scheeringa, M. S., Zeanah, C. H., & Cohen, J. A. (2011). PTSD in children and adolescents: Toward an empirically based algorithm. Depression and Anxiety, 28, 770–782. doi: 10.1002/da.20736.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Seedat, S., Lockhat, R., Kaminer, D., Zungu-Dirwayi, N., & Stein, D. (2001). An open trial of citalopram in adolescents with post traumatic stress disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16(1), 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Seedat, S., Stein, D. J., Ziervogel, C., Middleton, T., Kaminer, D., Emsley, R. A., et al. (2002). Comparison of response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in children, adolescents and adults with PTSD. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 12, 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Seinfeld, J. (1989). Therapy with a severely abused child: An object relations perspective. Clinical Social Work Journal, 17(1), 40–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Selye, H. (1952). The story of the adaptation syndrome. Montreal: Acta.Google Scholar
  115. Shapiro, F. (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Evaluation of controlled PTSD research. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27(3), 209–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shaw, J. A. (2000). Children, adolescents and trauma. Psychiatric Quarterly, 71(3), 227–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Silverman, W. K., & La Greca, A. K. (2002). Children experiencing disasters: Definitions, reactions, and predictors of outcomes. In A. M. LaGreca, W. K. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 11–34). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Silverman, W. K., Ortiz, C. D., Chockalingham, V., Burns, B. J., Kolko, D. J., & Amaya-Jackson, L. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for children and adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37(1), 156–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith, P., Yule, W., Perrin, S., Tranah, T., Dalgleish, T., & Clark, D. M. (2007). Cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: A preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(8), 1051–1061.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Soberman, G. B., Greenwald, R., & Rule, D. L. (2002). A controlled study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for boys with conduct problems. In R. Greenwald (Ed.), Trauma and juvenile delinquency: Theory, research, and interventions (pp. 217–236). Binghampton, NY: Hayworth Press.Google Scholar
  121. Stallard, P. (2000). Debriefing adolescents after critical life events. In B. Raphael & J. P. Wilson (Eds.), Psychological debriefing: Theory, practice, and evidence (pp. 213–224). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stallard, P., Velleman, R., Salter, E., Howse, I., Yule, W., & Taylor, G. (2006). A randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an early psychological intervention with children involved in road traffic accidents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(2), 127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stathis, S., Martin, G., & McKenna, J. (2005). A preliminary case series on the use of quetiapine for posttraumatic stress disorder in juveniles within a youth detention center. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 25(6), 539–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Steiner, H., Saxen, K. S., Carrion, V., Khanzode, L. A., Silverman, M., & Chang, K. (2007). Divalproex sodium for the treatment of PTSD and conduct disordered youth: A pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38(3), 183–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Stoddard, F., Jr., Luthra, R., Sorrentino, E., Saxe, G., Drake, J., Chang, Y., et al. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of sertraline to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in burned children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 21(5), 469–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Strawn, J., & Keeslin, B. (2001). Successful treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder with prazosin in a young child. Annals of Pharmocotherapy, 45(12), 1590–1591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Summit, R. C. (1983). The child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome. Child Abuse and Neglect, 7, 177–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Terr, L. C. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline and overview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 10–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Tolin, D. E., & Foa, E. B. (2002). Gender and PTSD: A cognitive model. In R. Kimmerling, P. Ouimette, & J. Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 76–97). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  130. Tyler, K. A., Hoyt, D. R., & Whitbeck, L. B. (2000). The effects of early sexual abuse on later sexual victimization among female homeless and runaway adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 235–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Udwin, O., Boyle, S., Yule, W., Bolton, D., & O’Ryan, D. (2000). Risk factors for long-term psychological effects of a disaster experienced in adolescence: Predictors of post traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41(8), 969–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Van Leeuwen, K. (1988). Resistances in the treatment of a sexually molested 6-year-old girl. International Review of Psycho-Analysis, 15(2), 149–156.Google Scholar
  133. Verleur, D., Hughes, R. E., & Dobkin de Rios, M. (1986). Enhancement of self-esteem among female adolescent incest victims: A controlled comparison. Adolescence, 21, 843–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Vernberg, E. M., Jacobs, A. K., Watson, P. J., Layne, C. M., Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., et al. (2008). Innovations in disaster mental health: Psychological first aid. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(4), 381–388. doi: 10.1037/a0012663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wasserstein, S. B., & La Greca, A. M. (1998). Hurricane Andrew: Parent conflict as a moderator of children’s adjustment. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 20(2), 212–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Webster, J. D., & Hackett, R. K. (2012). Unresolved attachment status and trauma-related symptomatology in maltreated adolescents: An examination of cognitive mediators. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 43(3), 471–483. doi: 10.1007/s10578-011-0276-8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weems, C. F., Pina, A. A., Costa, N. M., Watts, S. E., Taylor, L. K., & Cannon, M. F. (2007). Predisaster trait anxiety and negative affect predict posttraumatic stress in youths after Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(1), 154–159. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.75.1.154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wethington, H. R., Hahn, R. A., Fuqua-Whitley, D. S., Sipe, T. A., Crosby, A. E., & Johnson, R. L. (2008). The effectiveness of interventions to reduce psychological harm from traumatic events among children adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(3), 287–313. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.208.06.024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Wraith, R. (2000). Children and debriefing: Theory, interventions and outcomes. In B. Raphael & J. P. Wilson (Eds.), Psychological debriefing: Theory, practice, and evidence (pp. 195–212). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Yasik, A. E., Saigh, P. A., Oberfield, R. A., Halamandaris, P. V., & Wasserstrum, L. A. (2012). Self-reported anxiety among traumatized urban youth. Traumatology, 18(4), 47–55. doi: 10.1177/1534765612438947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Yule, W. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. International Review of Psychiatry, 13, 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Yule, W., Perrin, S., & Smith, P. (1999). Post-traumatic stress reactions in children and Adolescents. In W. Yule (Ed.), Post-traumatic stress disorders (pp. 25–50). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Theresa Kruczek
    • 1
  • Stephanie Vitanza
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Counseling Psychology and Guidance Services, Teacher’s College 622Ball State UniversityMuncieUSA
  2. 2.Clinical Mental Health CounselingArgosy UniversityPhoenixUSA

Personalised recommendations