Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses: Echoviruses, Coxsackieviruses, and Others

  • M. Steven Oberste
  • Susan I. Gerber


Enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) are ubiquitous human pathogens, with a wide range of clinical presentations, including asymptomatic infection, mild illness such as common colds and undifferentiated fever, febrile rash (hand, foot, and mouth disease, herpangina, Boston exanthem), conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and acute flaccid paralysis. There are over 100 enterovirus types defined, traditionally by antigenic tests but more recently according to genome sequence criteria. The human parechoviruses were formerly classified as enteroviruses but now constitute their own genus in Picornaviridae; however, their spectrum of illness is essentially the same as that of the enteroviruses. The viruses are primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral and respiratory routes, with a distinct spring-to-fall seasonality in temperate climates.


Aseptic Meningitis Acute Flaccid Paralysis Large Outbreak Enterovirus Infection Human Enterovirus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are indebted to the late Dr. Joseph Melnick, enterovirus pioneer and author of the previous edition of this chapter. His outstanding text has helped guide the development of the current edition.


  1. 1.
    Agol VI. Molecular mechanisms of poliovirus variation and evolution. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;299:211–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Akiyoshi K, Nakagawa N, Suga T. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis in a nursery school caused by echovirus type 30 in Kobe, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2007;60:66–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Al-Sunaidi M, Williams CH, Hughes PJ, Schnurr DP, Stanway G. Analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of RNA structural domains. J Virol. 2007;81:1013–21.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Alexander Jr JP, Chapman LE, Pallansch MA, et al. Coxsackievirus B2 infection and aseptic meningitis: a focal outbreak among members of a high school football team. J Infect Dis. 1993;167:1201–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alexander Jr JP, Baden L, Pallansch MA, Anderson LJ. Enterovirus 71 infections and neurologic disease – United States, 1977–1991. J Infect Dis. 1994;169:905–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexander Jr JP, Gary Jr HE, Pallansch MA. Duration of poliovirus excretion and its implications for acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: a review of the literature. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:S176–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ang LW, Phoon MC, Wu Y, et al. The changing seroepidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection among children and adolescents in Singapore. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:270.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Archimbaud C, Bailly JL, Chambon M, et al. Molecular evidence of persistent echovirus 13 meningoencephalitis in a patient with relapsed lymphoma after an outbreak of meningitis in 2000. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:4605–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bailly JL, Béguet A, Chambon M, Henquell C, Peigue-Lafeuille H. Nosocomial transmission of echovirus 30: molecular evidence by phylogenetic analysis of the VP1 encoding sequence. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2889–92.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Balvay L, Soto Rifo R, Ricci EP, Decimo D, Ohlmann T. Structural and functional diversity of viral IRESes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1789:542–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baumgarte S, Kleber de Souza Luna L, Grywna K, et al. Prevalence, types, and RNA concentrations of human parechoviruses in patients with acute enteritis, including a sixth parechovirus type. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:242–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Begier EM, Oberste MS, Landry ML, et al. An outbreak of concurrent echovirus 30 and coxsackievirus A1 infections associated with sea swimming among a group of travelers to Mexico. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:616–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bell EJ, Grist NR. ECHO viruses, carditis, and acute pleurodynia. Am Heart J. 1971;82:133–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bell EJ, McCartney RA, Basquill D, Chaudhuri AK. Mu-antibody capture ELISA for the rapid diagnosis of enterovirus infections in patients with aseptic meningitis. J Med Virol. 1986;19:213–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Belov GA, Nair V, Hansen BT, et al. Complex dynamic development of poliovirus membranous replication complexes. J Virol. 2012;86:302–12.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Benschop K, Molenkamp R, van der Ham A, Wolthers K, Beld M. Rapid detection of human parechoviruses in clinical samples by real-time PCR. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Benschop K, Thomas X, Serpenti C, Molenkamp R, Wolthers KC. High prevalence of human parechovirus genotypes in the Amsterdam region and the identification of specific HPeV variants by direct genotyping of stool samples. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3965–70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Benschop KSM, Schinkel J, Luken ME, et al. Fourth human parechovirus serotype. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1572–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benschop KSM, Schinkel J, Minnaar RP, et al. Human parechovirus infections in Dutch children and the association between serotype and disease severity. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:204–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Berg G, editor. Transmission of viruses by the water route. New York: Wiley; 1967.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bergelson JM, Shepley MP, Chan BM, Hemler ME, Finberg RW. Identification of the integrin VLA-2 as a receptor for echovirus 1. Science. 1992;255:1718–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blomqvist S, Klemola P, Kaijalainen S, et al. Co-circulation of coxsackieviruses A6 and A10 in hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in Finland. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bloom HH, Mack WN, Krueger BJ, Mallmann WL. Identification of enteroviruses in sewage. J Infect Dis. 1959;105:61–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bodian D, Morgan IM, Howe HA. Differentiation of types of poliomyelitis viruses. III. The grouping of fourteen strains into three basic immunological types. Am J Hyg. 1949;49:234–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boivin G, Abed Y, Boucher FD. Human parechovirus 3 and neonatal infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:103–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Boman J, Nilsson B, Juto P. Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM responses to different enteroviruses as measured by a coxsackie B5-based indirect ELISA. J Med Virol. 1992;38:32–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bostina M, Levy H, Filman DJ, Hogle JM. Poliovirus RNA is released from the capsid near a twofold symmetry axis. J Virol. 2011;85:776–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Broor S, Kishore J, Dogra V, Satapathy G, Seth P. An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackie A24 variant. Indian J Med Res. 1992;95:253–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cabrerizo M, Echevarria JE, Otero A, Lucas P, Trallero G. Molecular characterization of a coxsackievirus A24 variant that caused an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Spain, 2004. J Clin Virol. 2008;43:323–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Caro V, Guillot S, Delpeyroux F, Crainic R. Molecular strategy for ‘serotyping’ of human enteroviruses. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Casas I, Palacios GF, Trallero G, et al. Molecular characterization of human enteroviruses in clinical samples: comparison between VP2, VP1, and RNA polymerase regions using RT nested PCR assays and direct sequencing of products. J Med Virol. 2001;65:138–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Centers for Disease Control. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis caused by coxsackie A24 variant – Puerto Rico. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1988;37(123–124):129.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 9 among recreational vehicle campers – Connecticut, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004;53:710–3.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increased detections and severe neonatal disease associated with Coxsackievirus B1 Infection–United States, 2007. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2008;57:553–6.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis outbreaks caused by Coxsackievirus A24v – Uganda and Southern Sudan, 2010. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1024.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nonpolio enterovirus and human parechovirus surveillance–United States, 2006–2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010;59:1577–80.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Notes from the field: severe hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with coxsackievirus A6 – Alabama, Connecticut, California, and Nevada, November 2011–February 2012. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:213–4.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chan LG, Parashar UD, Lye MS, et al. Deaths of children during an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak, Malaysia: clinical and pathological characteristics of the disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:678–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chang WK, Liu KC, Foo TC, Lam MW, Chan CF. Acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Hong Kong 1971–1975. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1977;8:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Chatterjee S, Quarcoopome CO, Apenteng A. Unusual type of epidemic conjunctivitis in Ghana. Br J Ophthalmol. 1970;54:628–30.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chen YH, Lin HC, Lin HC. Increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women affected by herpangina. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010;203(49):e41–7.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Choo YJ, Kim SJ. Detection of human adenoviruses and enteroviruses in Korean oysters using cell culture, integrated cell culture-PCR, and direct PCR. J Microbiol. 2006;44:162–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clarke NA, Kabler PW. Human enteric viruses in sewage. Health Lab Sci. 1964;1:44–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Clements GB, Galbraith DN, Taylor KW. Coxsackie B virus infection and onset of childhood diabetes. Lancet. 1995;346:221–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Coller BA, Chapman NM, Beck MA, et al. Echovirus 22 is an atypical enterovirus. J Virol. 1990;64:2692–701.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Committee on Enteroviruses. Classification of human enteroviruses. Virology. 1962;16:501–4.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Committee on the ECHO Viruses. Enteric cytopathogenic human orphan (ECHO) viruses. Science. 1955;122:1187–8.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Committee on the Enteroviruses. The enteroviruses. Am J Public Health. 1957;47:1556–66.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cooney MK, Hall CE, Fox JP. The Seattle virus watch. 3. Evaluation of isolation methods and summary of infections detected by virus isolations. Am J Epidemiol. 1972;96:286–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Coplan NL, Atallah V, Mediratta S, Bruno MS, DePasquale NP. Cardiac, pancreatic, and liver abnormalities in a patient with coxsackie-B infection. Am J Med. 1996;101:325–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Corless CE, Guiver M, Borrow R, et al. Development an devaluation of a ‘real-time’ RT-PCR for the detection of enterovirus and parechovirus in CSF and throat swab samples. J Med Virol. 2002;67:555–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Curnen EC, Shaw EW, Melnick JL. Disease resembling nonparalytic poliomyelitis associated with a virus pathogenic for infant mice. JAMA. 1949;141:894–901.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Daijogo S, Semler BL. Mechanistic intersections between picornavirus translation and RNA replication. Adv Virus Res. 2011;80:1–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dalldorf G, Sickles GM. An unidentified, filterable agent isolated from the feces of children with paralysis. Science. 1948;108:61–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dalldorf G, Melnick JL. Coxsackieviruses. In: Horsfall FLJ, Tamm I, editors. Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott; 1965. p. 474–512.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Davia JL, Bel PH, Ninet VZ, et al. Onychomadesis outbreak in Valencia, Spain associated with hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by enteroviruses. Pediatr Dermatol. 2011;28:1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Day C, Cumming H, Walker J. Enterovirus-specific IgM in the diagnosis of meningitis. J Infect. 1989;19:219–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    de Ory F, Avellon A, Echevarria JE, et al. Viral infections of the central nervous system in Spain: a prospective study. J Med Virol. 2013;85:554–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    De Palma AM, Vliegen I, De Clercq E, Neyts J. Selective inhibitors of picornavirus replication. Med Res Rev. 2008;28:823–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    de Vries M, Pyrc K, Berkhout R, et al. Human parechovirus type 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 detection in picornavirus cultures. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:759–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Dorries R, ter Meulen V. Specificity of IgM antibodies in acute human coxsackievirus B infections, analysed by indirect solid phase enzyme immunoassay and immunoblot technique. J Gen Virol. 1983;64:159–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Drexler JF, Grywna K, Stöcker A, et al. A novel human parechovirus from Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:310–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dupuis M, Hull R, Wang H, et al. Molecular detection of viral causes of encephalitis and meningitis in New York State. J Med Virol. 2011;83:2172–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dussart P, Cartet G, Huguet P, et al. Outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in French Guiana and West Indies caused by coxsackievirus A24 variant: phylogenetic analysis reveals Asian import. J Med Virol. 2005;75:559–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, Roos R, editors. The picornaviruses. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Elveback LR, Fox JP, Ketler A, et al. The Virus Watch program: a continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. 3. Preliminary report on association of infections with disease. Am J Epidemiol. 1966;83:436–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Enders JF, Weller TH, Robbins FC. Cultivation of the Lansing strain of poliomyelitis virus in cultures of various human embryonic tissues. Science. 1949;109:85–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Faustini A, Fano V, Muscillo M, et al. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus 30 associated with attending school and swimming in pools. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:291–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Flett K, Youngster I, Huang J, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus a6. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1702–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fonseca MC, Sarmiento L, Resik S, et al. Isolation of Coxsackievirus A24 variant from patients with hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Cuba, 2008–2009. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:77–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Fowlkes AL, Honarmand S, Glaser C, et al. Enterovirus-associated encephalitis in the California encephalitis project, 1998–2005. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:1685–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Francy DS, Stelzer EA, Bushon RN, et al. Comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and chlorine and UV disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters. Water Res. 2012;46:4164–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Freund MW, Kleinveld G, Krediet TG, van Loon AM, Verboon-Maciolek MA. Prognosis for neonates with enterovirus myocarditis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010;95:F206–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Frisk G, Nilsson E, Ehrnst A, Diderholm H. Enterovirus IgM detection: specificity of mu-antibody-capture radioimmunoassays using virions and procapsids of Coxsackie B virus. J Virol Methods. 1989;24:191–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fuchs I, Golan A, Borer A, Shemer-Avni Y, Dagan R, Greenberg D. Proactive approach to containment of enterovirus infection in the nursery. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2013;52(7):639–44.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Fujimoto T, Iizuka S, Enomoto M, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by coxsackievirus A6, Japan, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:337–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Gelfand HM, Fox JP, Leblanc DR. The enteric viral flora of a population of normal children in southern Louisiana. Am J Trop Med. 1957;6:521–31.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Glimaker M, Samuelson A, Magnius L, et al. Early diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis by detection of specific IgM antibodies with a solid-phase reverse immunosorbent test (SPRIST) and mu-capture EIA. J Med Virol. 1992;36:193–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Goldwater PN. Immunoglobulin M capture immunoassay in investigation of coxsackievirus B5 and B6 outbreaks in South Australia. J Clin Microbiol. 1995;33:1628–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gopalkrishna V, Patil PR, Patil GP, Chitambar SD. Circulation of multiple enterovirus serotypes causing hand, foot and mouth disease in India. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:420–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grinstein S, Melnick JL, Wallis C. Virus isolations from sewage and from a stream receiving effluents of sewage treatment plants. Bull World Health Organ. 1970;42:291–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Grist NR, Bell EJ, Assad F. Enteroviruses in human disease. Prog Med Virol. 1978;24:114–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Hall CE, Cooney MK, Fox JP. The Seattle virus watch program. I. Infection and illness experience of virus watch families during a communitywide epidemic of echovirus type 30 aseptic meningitis. Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1970;60:1456–65.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Hammon WMD, Ludwig EH, Sather G, Yohn DS. Comparative studies on patterns of family infections with polioviruses and ECHO virus type 1 on an American military base in the Philippines. Am J Public Health. 1957;47:802–11.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hampil B, Melnick JL, Wallis C, et al. Preparation of antiserum to enteroviruses in large animals. J Immunol. 1965;95:895–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hampil B, Melnick JL. WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera: second report. Bull World Health Organ. 1968;38:577–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Harrison SC. Common cold virus and its receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:783.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Harvala H, Robertson I, Chieochansin T, et al. Specific association of human parechovirus type 3 with sepsis and fever in young infants, as identified by direct typing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1753–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Harvala H, Sharp CP, Ngole EM, et al. Detection and genetic characterization of enteroviruses circulating among wild populations of chimpanzees in Cameroon; relationship with human and simian enteroviruses. J Virol. 2011;85:4480–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Hauri AM, Schimmelpfennig M, Walter-Domes M, et al. An outbreak of viral meningitis associated with a public swimming pond. Epidemiol Infect. 2005;133:291–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Hawley HB, Morin DP, Geraghty ME, Tomkow J, Phillips CA. Coxsackievirus B epidemic at a Boy’s Summer Camp. Isolation of virus from swimming water. J Am Med Assoc. 1973;226:33–6.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Helfand RF, Gary Jr HE, Freeman CY, Anderson LJ, Pallansch MA. Serologic evidence of an association between enteroviruses and the onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pittsburgh Diabetes Research Group. J Infect Dis. 1995;172:1206–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hodes DS, Espinoza DV. Temperature sensitivity of isolates of echovirus type 11 causing chronic meningoencephalitis in an agammaglobulinemic patient. J Infect Dis. 1981;144:377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hodgson J, Bendig J, Keeling P, Booth JC. Comparison of two immunoassay procedures for detecting enterovirus IgM. J Med Virol. 1995;47:29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hogle JM. Poliovirus cell entry: common structural themes in viral cell entry pathways. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:677–702.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Honig EI, Melnick JL, Isacson P, et al. An endemiological study of enteric virus infections: poliomyelitis, coxsackie, and orphan (ECHO) viruses isolated from normal children in two socioeconomic groups. J Exp Med. 1956;103:247–62.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hopkins JH. Bornholm disease. Br Med J. 1950;1:1230–2.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hsu BM, Chen CH, Wan MT. Prevalence of enteroviruses in hot spring recreation areas of Taiwan. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;52:253–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Huang FL, Chen CH, Huang SK, Chen PY. An outbreak of enterovirus 71 in a nursery. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:609–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Huang WT, Lee PI, Chang LY, et al. Epidemic pleurodynia caused by coxsackievirus B3 at a medical center in northern Taiwan. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2010;43:515–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Huber S, Ramsingh AI. Coxsackievirus-induced pancreatitis. Viral Immunol. 2004;17:358–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hyypiä T, Horsnell C, Maaronen M, et al. A distinct picornavirus group identified by sequence analysis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:8847–51.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Ikeda T, Mizuta K, Abiko C, et al. Acute respiratory infections due to enterovirus 68 in Yamagata, Japan between 2005 and 2010. Microbiol Immunol. 2012;56:139–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Imamura T, Fuji N, Suzuki A, et al. Enterovirus 68 among children with severe acute respiratory infection, the Philippines. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:1430–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Takeda N, Sakae K. Isolation and identification of a novel human parechovirus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:391–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Jacobson LM, Redd JT, Schneider E, et al. Outbreak of lower respiratory tract illness associated with human enterovirus 68 among American Indian children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:309–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jenista JA, Powell KR, Menegus MA. Epidemiology of neonatal enterovirus infection. J Pediatr. 1984;104:685–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Jokela P, Joki-Korpela P, Maaronen M, Glumoff V, Hyypia T. Detection of human picornaviruses by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR and liquid hybridization. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1239–45.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Kee F, McElroy G, Stewart D, Coyle P, Watson J. A community outbreak of echovirus infection associated with an outdoor swimming pool. J Public Health Med. 1994;16:145–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Kelly S, Winsser J, Winklestein Jr W. Poliomyelitis and other enteric viruses in sewage. Am J Public Health. 1957;47:72–7.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Khan A, Sharif S, Shaukat S, Khan S, Zaidi S. An outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) caused by coxsackievirus A24 variant in Pakistan. Virus Res. 2008;137:150–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Khetsuriani N, LaMonte A, Oberste MS, Pallansch MA. Neonatal enterovirus infections reported to the National Enterovirus Surveillance System, 1983–2003. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:889–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Khetsuriani N, LaMonte A, Oberste MS, Pallansch MA. Enterovirus Surveillance – United States, 1970–2005. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Surveill Summ. 2006;55:1–20.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Khetsuriani N, Kutateladze T, Zangaladze E, et al. Diversity of enteroviruses circulating in the Republic of Georgia, 2002–2005. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:1340–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Knowles NJ, McCauley JW. Coxsackievirus B5 and the relationship to swine vesicular disease virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1997;223:153–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Knowles NJ. The picornavirus home page. Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright Laboratory, Pirbright, Woking. 2010.
  117. 117.
    Knowles NJ, Hovi T, Hyypiä T, et al. Picornaviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, editors. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Elsevier; 2011. p. 855–80.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Kogon A, Spigland I, Frothingham TE, et al. The virus watch program: a continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. VII. Observations on viral excretion, seroimmunity, intrafamilial spread and illness association in coxsackie and echovirus infections. Am J Epidemiol. 1969;89:51–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kok TW, Pryor T, Payne L. Comparison of rhabdomyosarcoma, buffalo green monkey kidney epithelial, A549 (human lung epithelial) cells and human embryonic lung fibroblasts for isolation of enteroviruses from clinical samples. J Clin Virol. 1998;11:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Kono R, Sasagawa A, Ishii K, et al. Pandemic of a new type of conjunctivitis. Lancet. 1972;1:1191–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kumar A, Shukla D, Kumar R, et al. An epidemic of encephalitis associated with human enterovirus B in Uttar Pradesh, India, 2008. J Clin Virol. 2011;51:142–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Lamb GA, Chin TDY, Scarce LE. Isolations of enteric viruses from sewage and river water in a metropolitan area. Am J Hyg. 1964;80:320–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Landsteiner K, Popper E. Mikroskopische Praparate von einem Menschlichen und zwei Affenruckenmarken. Wien Klinische Wochenschrift. 1908;21:1830.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lee HY, Chen CJ, Huang YC, et al. Clinical features of echovirus 6 and 9 infections in children. J Clin Virol. 2010;49:175–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lee LH, Phillips CA, South MA, Melnick JL, Yow MD. Enteric virus isolation in different cell cultures. Bull World Health Organ. 1965;32:657–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Li L, Victoria J, Kapoor A, et al. Genomic characterization of a novel human parechovirus type. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:288–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lim KA, Benyesh-Melnick M. Typing of viruses by combinations of antiserum pools. Application to typing of enteroviruses (coxsackie and ECHO). J Immunol. 1960;84:309–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lim KH, Yin-Murphy M. An epidemic of conjunctivitis in Singapore in 1970. Singapore Med J. 1971;12:247–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Lim KH, Yin-Murphy M. The aetiologic agents of epidemic conjunctivitis. Singapore Med J. 1977;18:41–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lin TL, Li YS, Huang CW, et al. Rapid and highly sensitive coxsackievirus a indirect immunofluorescence assay typing kit for enterovirus serotyping. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:785–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lin TY, Kao HT, Hsieh SH, et al. Neonatal enterovirus infections: emphasis on risk factors of severe and fatal infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:889–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Ljubin-Sternak S, Juretic E, Santak M, et al. Clinical and molecular characterization of a parechovirus type 1 outbreak in neonates in Croatia. J Med Virol. 2011;83:137–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Lo SH, Huang YC, Huang CG, et al. Clinical and epidemiologic features of Coxsackievirus A6 infection in children in northern Taiwan between 2004 and 2009. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:252–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lodder-Verschoor F, de Roda Husman AM, van den Berg HH, et al. Year-round screening of noncommercial and commercial oysters for the presence of human pathogenic viruses. J Food Prot. 2005;68:1853–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lund E, Hedstrom CE, Strannegard O. A comparison between virus isolations from sewage and from fecal specimens from patients. Am J Epidemiol. 1966;84:282–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ma E, Chan KC, Cheng P, Wong C, Chuang SK. The enterovirus 71 epidemic in 2008—public health implications for Hong Kong. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e775–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mahfoud F, Gartner B, Kindermann M, et al. Virus serology in patients with suspected myocarditis: utility or futility? Eur Heart J. 2011;32:897–903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Martino TA, Liu P, Sole MJ. Viral infection and the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ Res. 1994;74:182–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Maus MV, Posencheg MA, Geddes K, et al. Detection of echovirus 18 in human breast milk. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1137–40.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    McLaughlin JB, Gessner BD, Lynn TV, Funk EA, Middaugh JP. Association of regulatory issues with an echovirus 18 meningitis outbreak at a children’s summer camp in Alaska. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:875–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    McMinn P, Lindsay K, Perera D, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of enterovirus 71 strains isolated during linked epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia. J Virol. 2001;75:7732–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Mease PJ, Ochs HD, Corey L, Dragavon J, Wedgwood RJ. Echovirus encephalitis/myositis in X-linked agammaglobulinemia [letter]. N Engl J Med. 1985;313:758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Meijer A, van der Sanden S, Snijders BE, et al. Emergence and epidemic occurrence of enterovirus 68 respiratory infections in The Netherlands in 2010. Virology. 2012;423:49–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Melnick JL, Shaw EW, Curnen EC. A virus isolated from patients diagnosed as non-paralytic poliomyelitis or aseptic meningitis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1949;71:344–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Melnick JL, Clarke NA, Kraft LM. Immunological reactions of the Coxsackie viruses. III. Cross-protection tests in infant mice born of vaccinated mothers. Transfer of immunity through the milk. J Exp Med. 1950;92:499–505.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Melnick JL, Ågren K. Poliomyelitis and coxsackie viruses isolated from normal infants in Egypt. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1952;81:621–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Melnick JL. Application of tissue culture methods to epidemiological studies of poliomyelitis. Am J Public Health. 1954;44:571–80.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Melnick JL, Emmons J, Coffey JH, Schoof H. Seasonal distribution of Coxsackie viruses in urban sewage and flies. Am J Hyg. 1954;59:164–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Melnick JL. Advances in the study of the enteroviruses. Prog Med Virol. 1958;1:59–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Melnick JL. Echoviruses. In: Horsfall FLJ, Tamm I, editors. Viral and rickettsial infections of man. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott; 1965. p. 513–45.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Melnick JL, Hampil B. WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera. Bull World Health Organ. 1965;33:761–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Melnick JL, Hampil B. WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera. Third report. Bull World Health Org. 1970;42:847–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Melnick JL, Hampil B. WHO collaborative studies on enterovirus reference antisera; fourth report. Bull World Health Organ. 1973;48:381–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Melnick JL. Reference materials in virology: the enterovirus example. In: Proceedings International Conference on Standardization of Diagnostic Materials. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control; 1974. p. 213–35.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Melnick JL, Gerba CP, Wallis C. Viruses in water. Bull World Health Organ. 1978;56:499–508.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Melnick JL, Wenner HA, Phillips CA. Enteroviruses. In: Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ, editors. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1979. p. 471–534.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Melnick JL. Portraits of viruses: the picornaviruses. Intervirology. 1983;20:61–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Melnick JL, editor. Enteric viruses in water. Basel: S. Karger; 1984.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Melnick JL, Safferman R, Rao VC, et al. Round robin investigation of methods for the recovery of poliovirus from drinking water. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1984;47:144–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Melnick JL. Enteroviruses. In: Rose NR, Macario EC, Fahey JL, Friedman H, Penn GM, editors. Manual of clinical laboratory immunology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology; 1992. p. 631–3.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Metcalf TG, Melnick JL. Simple apparatus for collecting estuarine sediments and suspended solids to detect solids-associated virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983;45:323–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mirand A, Henquell C, Archimbaud C, et al. Outbreak of hand, foot and mouth disease/herpangina associated with coxsackievirus A6 and A10 infections in 2010, France: a large citywide, prospective observational study. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:E110–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Mirkovic RR, Kono R, Yin-Murphy M, et al. Enterovirus type 70: the etiologic agent of pandemic acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Bull World Health Organ. 1973;49:341–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Modlin JF. Perinatal echovirus infection: insights from a literature review of 61 cases of serious infection and 16 outbreaks in nurseries. Rev Infect Dis. 1986;8:918–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Moore M, Morens DM. Enteroviruses, including polioviruses. In: Belshe RB, editor. Textbook of human virology. Littleton: PSG Publishing Co.; 1984. p. 407–83.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Morens DM, Pallansch MA, Moore M. Polioviruses and other enteroviruses. In: Belshe RB, editor. Textbook of human virology. St. Louis: Mosby Yearbook; 1990. p. 427–97.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Morrison LA, Fields BN. Parallel mechanisms in neuropathogenesis of enteric virus infections. J Virol. 1991;65:2767–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Moya-Suri V, Schlosser M, Zimmermann K, et al. Enterovirus RNA sequences in sera of schoolchildren in the general population and their association with type 1-diabetes-associated autoantibodies. J Med Microbiol. 2005;54:879–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Mullins JA, Khetsuriani N, Nix WA, et al. Emergence of echovirus 13 as a prominent enterovirus. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;I38:70–7.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Nagy PD, Pogany J. The dependence of viral RNA replication on co-opted host factors. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2012;10:137–49.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Neva FA, Enders JF. Cytopathogenic agents isolated from patients during an unusual epidemic exanthem. J Immunol. 1954;72:307–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Neva FA, Zuffante SM. Agents isolated from patients with Boston exanthem disease during 1954 in Pittsburgh. J Lab Clin Med. 1957;50:712–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Nicola P, Baratono S, Tovo PA. On a case of congenital immunological deficiency (sex-linked agammaglobulinemia?). Minerva Pediatr. 1974;26:1872–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Nishimura Y, Shimojima M, Tano Y, et al. Human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 is a functional receptor for enterovirus 71. Nat Med. 2009;15:794–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Nix WA, Oberste MS, Pallansch MA. Sensitive, seminested PCR amplification of VP1 sequences for direct identification of all enterovirus serotypes from original clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2698–704.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Nix WA, Maher K, Niklasson B, et al. Detection of all known parechoviruses by real time-PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2519–24.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Nomoto A. Cellular receptors for virus infection. Semin Virol. 1992;3:77–133.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Noordhoek GT, Weel JFL, Poelstra E, Hooghiemstra M, Brandenburg A. Clinical validation of a new real-time PCR assay for detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses, and implications for diagnostic procedures. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:75–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Norder H, Bjerregaard L, Magnius LO. Homotypic echoviruses share aminoterminal VP1 sequence homology applicable for typing. J Med Virol. 2001;63:35–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Nsaibia S, Wagner S, Ronde P, et al. The difficult-to-cultivate coxsackieviruses A can productively multiply in primary culture of mouse skeletal muscle. Virus Res. 2007;123:30–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    O’Neil KM, Pallansch MA, Winkelstein JA, Lock TM, Modlin JF. Chronic group A coxsackievirus infection in agammaglobulinemia: demonstration of genomic variation of serotypically identical isolates persistently excreted by the same patient. J Infect Dis. 1988;157:183–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Oberste MS, Maher K, Kilpatrick DR, et al. Typing of human enteroviruses by partial sequencing of VP1. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:1288–93.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Oberste MS, Maher K, Kilpatrick DR, Pallansch MA. Molecular evolution of the human enteroviruses: correlation of serotype with VP1 sequence and application to picornavirus classification. J Virol. 1999;73:1941–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Oberste MS, Maher K, Flemister MR, et al. Comparison of classic and molecular approaches for the identification of untypeable enteroviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1170–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Oberste MS, Schnurr D, Maher K, al-Busaidy S, Pallansch MA. Molecular identification of new picornaviruses and characterization of a proposed enterovirus 73 serotype. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Oberste MS, Maher K, Schnurr D, et al. Enterovirus 68 is associated with respiratory illness and shares biological features with both the enteroviruses and the rhinoviruses. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:2577–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Oberste MS, Pallansch MA. Enterovirus molecular detection and typing. Rev Med Microbiol. 2005;16:163–71.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Oberste MS, Maher K, Williams AJ, et al. Species-specific RT-PCR amplification of human enteroviruses: a tool for rapid species identification of uncharacterized enteroviruses. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:119–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Oberste MS, Penaranda S, Rogers SL, Henderson E, Nix WA. Comparative evaluation of Taqman real-time PCR and semi-nested VP1 PCR for detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. J Clin Virol. 2010;49:73–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Oberste MS, Feeroz MM, Maher K, et al. Characterizing the picornavirus landscape among synanthropic nonhuman primates in Bangladesh, 2007–2008. J Virol. 2013;87:558–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ogra PL, Fishaut M, Gallagher MR. Viral vaccination via the mucosal routes. Rev Infect Dis. 1980;2:352–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Ogram SA, Flanegan JB. Non-template functions of viral RNA in picornavirus replication. Curr Opin Virol. 2011;1:339–46.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ooi MH, Wong SC, Lewthwaite P, Cardosa MJ, Solomon T. Clinical features, diagnosis, and management of enterovirus 71. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9:1097–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Osterback R, Vuorinen T, Linna M, et al. Coxsackievirus A6 and hand, foot, and mouth disease, Finland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1485–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Otatume S, Addy P. Ecology of enteroviruses in tropics. I. Circulation of enteroviruses in healthy infants in tropical urban area. Jpn J Microbiol. 1975;19:201–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Otero JR, Folgueira L, Trallero G, et al. A-549 is a suitable cell line for primary isolation of coxsackie B viruses. J Med Virol. 2001;65:534–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ozsvar Z, Deak J, Pap A. Possible role of Coxsackie-B virus infection in pancreatitis. Int J Pancreatol. 1992;11:105–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Padate BP, Keidan J. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis in a patient with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma treated previously with rituximab. Clin Lab Haematol. 2006;28:69–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pallansch MA. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. In: Strickland GT, editor. Hunter’s tropical medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2000. p. 226–7.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Pallansch MA, Oberste MS. Coxsackievirus, echovirus, and other enteroviruses. In: Gorbach SL, Bartlett JG, Blacklow NR, editors. Infectious diseases. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004. p. 2047–51.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Pallansch MA, Roos R. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, Lamb RA, Martin MA, Roizman B, Straus SE, editors. Fields virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. p. 839–93.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Pallansch MA, Oberste MS. Enteroviruses and parechoviruses. In: Specter S, Hodinka RL, Young SA, editors. Clinical virology manual. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2009. p. 249–82.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Panel for Picornaviruses. Picornaviruses: classification of nine new types. Science. 1963;141:153–4.Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Parks WP, Queiroga LT, Melnick JL. Studies of infantile diarrhea in Karachi. Pakistan. II. Multiple virus isolations from rectal swabs. Am J Epidemiol. 1967;85:469–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Patel JR, Daniel J, Mathan M, Mathan VI. Isolation and identification of enteroviruses from faecal samples in a differentiated epithelial cell line (HRT-18) derived from human rectal carcinoma. J Med Virol. 1984;14:255–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Patel JR, Daniel J, Mathan VI. A comparison of the susceptibility of three human gut tumour-derived differentiated epithelial cell lines, primary monkey kidney cells and human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line to 66-prototype strains of human enteroviruses. J Virol Methods. 1985;12:209–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Patriarca PA, Onorato IM, Sklar VE, et al. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis investigation of a large-scale community outbreak in Dade County, Florida. JAMA. 1983;249:1283–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Pattison JR. Tests for coxsackie B virus-specific IgM. J Hygiene. 1983;90:327–32.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Paul JR, Riordan JT, Melnick JL. Antibodies to three different antigenic types of poliomyelitis virus in sera from North Alaskan Eskimos. Am J Hyg. 1951;54:275–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Piñeiro L, Vicente D, Montes M, Hernández-Dorronsoro U, Cilla G. Human parechoviruses in infants with systemic infection. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1790–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Pinto RM, Diez JM, Bosch A. Use of the colonic carcinoma cell line CaCo-2 for in vivo amplification and detection of enteric viruses. J Med Virol. 1994;44:310–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Prather SL, Jenista JA, Menegus MA. The isolation of nonpolio enteroviruses from serum. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1984;2:353–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Quartier P, Foray S, Casanova JL, et al. Enteroviral meningoencephalitis in X-linked agammaglobulinemia: intensive immunoglobulin therapy and sequential viral detection in cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000;19:1106–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Racaniello VR. Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 795–838.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Rahamat-Langendoen J, Riezebos-Brilman A, Borger R, et al. Upsurge of human enterovirus 68 infections in patients with severe respiratory tract infections. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:103–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Ramos-Alvarez M, Sabin AB. Characteristics of poliomyelitis and other enteric viruses recovered in tissue culture from healthy American children. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1956;87:655–61.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Ren R, Racaniello VR. Human poliovirus receptor gene expression and poliovirus tissue tropism in transgenic mice. J Virol. 1992;66:296–304.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Rigonan AS, Mann L, Chonmaitree T. Use of monoclonal antibodies to identify serotypes of enterovirus isolates. J Clin Microbiol. 1998;36:1877–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Robbins FC, Enders JF, Weller TH, Florentino GL. Studies on the cultivation of poliomyelitis viruses in tissue culture. V. The direct isolation and serologic identification of virus strains in tissue culture from patients with nonparalytic and paralytic poliomyelitis. Am J Hyg. 1951;54:286–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Romero JR. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction detection of the enteroviruses. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1999;123:1161–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Rorabaugh ML, Berlin LE, Heldrich F, et al. Aseptic meningitis in infants younger than 2 years of age: acute illness and neurologic complications. Pediatrics. 1993;92:206–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Rosen L, Melnick JL, Schmidt J, Wenner HA. Subclassification of enteroviruses and ECHO virus type 34. Brief report. Arch Gesamte Virusforsch. 1970;30:89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Rossmann MG, He Y, Kuhn RJ. Picornavirus-receptor interactions. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:324–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Rotbart HA. New methods of rapid enteroviral diagnosis. Prog Med Virol. 1991;38:96–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Rotbart HA, editor. Human enterovirus infections. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Rotbart HA, Romero JR. Laboratory diagnosis of enteroviral infections. In: Rotbart HA, editor. Human enterovirus infections. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 1995. p. 401–18.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Rotbart HA, Brennan PJ, Fife KH, et al. Enterovirus meningitis in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:896–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Safferman R, Environmental Protection Agency. US EPA manual of methods for virology. Cincinnati: US Environmental Protection Agency; 1984.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Saijets S, Ylipaasto P, Vaarala O, Hovi T, Roivainen M. Enterovirus infection and activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Med Virol. 2003;70:430–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Sarmiento L, Cabrera-Rode E, Lekuleni L, et al. Occurrence of enterovirus RNA in serum of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes and islet cell autoantibody-positive subjects in a population with a low incidence of type 1 diabetes. Autoimmunity. 2007;40:540–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Sawyer MH. Enterovirus infections: diagnosis and treatment. Semin Pediatr Infect Dis. 2002;13:40–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Schaeffer FL. Binding of proflavine by and photoinactivation of poliovirus propagated in the presence of the dye. Virology. 1962;18:412–25.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Schieble JH, Fox VL, Lennette EH. A probable new human picornavirus associated with respiratory diseases. Am J Epidemiol. 1967;85:297–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Schmidt NJ, Ho HH, Lennette EH. Propagation and isolation of group A coxsackieviruses in RD cells. J Clin Microbiol. 1975;2:183–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Schmugge M, Lauener R, Bossart W, Seger RA, Gungor T. Chronic enteroviral meningo-encephalitis in X-linked agammaglobulinaemia: favourable response to anti-enteroviral treatment. Eur J Pediatr. 1999;158:1010–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Schneider-Schaulies J. Cellular receptors for viruses: links to tropism and pathogenesis. J Gen Virol. 2000;81(Pt 6):1413–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Selvarangan R, Nzabi M, Selvaraju SB, et al. Human parechovirus 3 causing sepsis-like illness in children from midwestern United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:238–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Semler BL, Wimmer E, editors. Molecular biology of the picornaviruses. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Sharp J, Harrison CJ, Puckett K, et al. Characteristics of young infants in whom human parechovirus, enterovirus or neither were detected in cerebrospinal fluid during sepsis evaluations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:213–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    She RC, Crist G, Billetdeaux E, Langer J, Petti CA. Comparison of multiple shell vial cell lines for isolation of enteroviruses: a national perspective. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:151–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Spigland I, Fox JP, Elveback LR, et al. The Virus Watch program: a continuing surveillance of viral infections in metropolitan New York families. II. Laboratory methods and preliminary report on infections revealed by virus isolation. Am J Epidemiol. 1966;83:413–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Stanway G, Kalkkinen N, Roivainen M, et al. Molecular and biological characteristics of echovirus 22, a representative of a new picornavirus group. J Virol. 1994;68:8232–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Steil BP, Kempf BJ, Barton DJ. Poly(A) at the 3′ end of positive-strand RNA and VPg-linked poly(U) at the 5′ end of negative-strand RNA are reciprocal templates during replication of poliovirus RNA. J Virol. 2010;84:2843–58.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Stene LC, Rewers M. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the enterovirus link to type 1 diabetes: critical review of human studies. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;168:12–23.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Swanink CM, Veenstra L, Poort YA, Kaan JA, Galama JM. Coxsackievirus B1-based antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgM, and IgA with broad specificity for enteroviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:3240–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Tavares FN, Costa EV, Oliveira SS, et al. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis and coxsackievirus A24v, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:495–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Tebruegge M, Curtis N. Enterovirus infections in neonates. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2009;14:222–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Terletskaia-Ladwig E, Metzger C, Schalasta G, Enders G. Evaluation of enterovirus serological tests IgM-EIA and complement fixation in patients with meningitis, confirmed by detection of enteroviral RNA by RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. J Med Virol. 2000;61:221–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Thibaut HJ, Leyssen P, Puerstinger G, et al. Towards the design of combination therapy for the treatment of enterovirus infections. Antiviral Res. 2011;90:213–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Thibaut HJ, De Palma AM, Neyts J. Combating enterovirus replication: state-of-the-art on antiviral research. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:185–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Tracy S, Oberste MS, Drescher KM, editors. Group B coxsackieviruses. Berlin: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Triantafilou M, Wilson KM, Triantafilou K. Identification of echovirus 1 and coxsackievirus A9 receptor molecules via a novel flow cytometric quantification method. Cytometry. 2001;43:279–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Triki H, Rezig D, Bahri O, et al. Molecular characterisation of a coxsackievirus A24 that caused an outbreak of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis, Tunisia 2003. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:176–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Tryfonos C, Richter J, Koptides D, Yiangou M, Christodoulou CG. Molecular typing and epidemiology of enteroviruses in Cyprus, 2003–2007. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:1433–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    van der Kolk LE, Baars JW, Prins MH, van Oers MH. Rituximab treatment results in impaired secondary humoral immune responsiveness. Blood. 2002;100:2257–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Verboon-Maciolek MA, Krediet TG, van Loon AM, et al. Epidemiological survey of neonatal non-polio enterovirus infection in the Netherlands. J Med Virol. 2002;66:241–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Verboon-Maciolek MA, Krediet TG, Gerards LJ, et al. Severe neonatal parechovirus infection and similarity with enterovirus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:241–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Verma NA, Zheng XT, Harris MU, et al. Outbreak of life-threatening coxsackievirus B1 myocarditis in neonates. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:759–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Wallis C, Melnick JL. Cationic stabilization—a new property of enteroviruses. Virology. 1961;16:683–700.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Wallis C, Melnick JL. Photodynamic inactivation of enteroviruses. J Bacteriol. 1965;89:41–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Wallis C, Homma A, Melnick JL. A portable virus concentrator for testing water in the field. Water Res. 1972;6:1249–56.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Walters B, Peñaranda S, Nix WA, et al. Detection of human parechovirus (HPeV)-3 in spinal fluid specimens from pediatric patients in the Chicago area. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:187–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Wang SM, Ho TS, Lin HC, et al. Reemerging of enterovirus 71 in Taiwan: the age impact on disease severity. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:1219–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Wang SY, Lin TL, Chen HY, Lin TS. Early and rapid detection of enterovirus 71 infection by an IgM-capture ELISA. J Virol Methods. 2004;119:37–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Watanabe K, Oie M, Nishikawa M, Fujii M. Isolation and characterization of a novel human parechovirus from various clinical samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:889–95.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Weber B, Rabenau H, Cinatl J, Maass G, Doerr HW. Quantitative detection of neutralizing antibodies against polioviruses and non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) using an automated microneutralization assay: a seroepidemiologic survey. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie. 1994;280:540–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Wei SH, Huang YP, Liu MC, et al. An outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with onychomadesis in Taiwan, 2010. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:346.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Weller TH, Enders JF, Buckingham M, Finn Jr JJ. The etiology of epidemic pleurodynia: a study of two viruses isolated from a typical outbreak. J Immunol. 1950;65:337–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Wenner HA. The ECHO viruses. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1962;101:398–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Wikswo ME, Khetsuriani N, Fowlkes AL, et al. Increased activity of coxsackievirus B1 strains associated with severe disease among young infants in the United States, 2007–2008. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:e44–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Wilfert CM, Buckley RH, Mohanakumar T, et al. Persistent and fatal central-nervous-system ECHOvirus infections in patients with agammaglobulinemia. N Engl J Med. 1977;296:1485–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Wimmer E, Hellen CU, Cao X. Genetics of poliovirus. Annu Rev Genet. 1993;27:353–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Wolthers KC, Benschop KS, Schinkel J, et al. Human parechoviruses as an important viral cause of sepsis-like illness and meningitis in young children. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:358–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Woodruff JF. Viral myocarditis. A review. Am J Pathol. 1980;101:425–84.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    World Health Organization. A guide to clinical management and public health response for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    Wu PC, Huang LM, Kao CL, et al. An outbreak of coxsackievirus A16 infection: comparison with other enteroviruses in a preschool in Taipei. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2010;43:271–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Wu Y, Yeo A, Phoon MC, et al. The largest outbreak of hand; foot and mouth disease in Singapore in 2008: the role of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A strains. Int J Infect Dis. 2010;14:e1076–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Wang Z, et al. Coxsackievirus A21, enterovirus 68, and acute respiratory tract infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:821–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Yamayoshi S, Yamashita Y, Li J, et al. Scavenger receptor B2 is a cellular receptor for enterovirus 71. Nat Med. 2009;15:798–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Yan D, Zhu S, Zhang Y, et al. Outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Yunnan, People’s Republic of China, 2007. Virol J. 2010;7:138.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Yin-Murphy M, Lim KH. Picornavirus epidemic conjunctivitis in Singapore. Lancet. 1972;2:857–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Yin-Murphy M. Viruses of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Lancet. 1973;1:545–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Yin-Murphy M. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Prog Med Virol. 1984;29:23–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Yin-Murphy M, Baharuddin I, Phoon MC, Chow VT. A recent epidemic of Coxsackie virus type A24 acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Singapore. Br J Ophthalmol. 1986;70:869–73.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Zeng M, El Khatib NF, Tu S, et al. Seroepidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection prior to the 2011 season in children in Shanghai. J Clin Virol. 2012;53:285–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Zeng M, Li YF, Wang XH, et al. Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children in Shanghai 2007–2010. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1122–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Zhang G, Haydon DT, Knowles NJ, McCauley JW. Molecular evolution of swine vesicular disease virus. J Gen Virol. 1999;80(Pt 3):639–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Zhang Y, Tan XJ, Wang HY, et al. An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with subgenotype C4 of human enterovirus 71 in Shandong, China. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:262–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Zhu FC, Liang ZL, Li XL, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of an enterovirus 71 vaccine in healthy Chinese children and infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 clinical trial. Lancet. 2013;381:1037–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Ziegler JB, Penny R. Fatal echo 30 virus infection and amyloidosis in X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1975;3:347–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Ehrenfeld E, Domingo E, et al., editors. The picornaviruses. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  2. Knowles NJ, Hovi T, et al. Picornaviridae. In: King AMQ, Adams MJ, Carstens EB, Lefkowitz EJ, editors. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses: ninth report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego: Elsevier; 2011. p. 855–80.Google Scholar
  3. Melnick JL, Wenner HA, et al. Enteroviruses. In: Lennette EH, Schmidt NJ, editors. Diagnostic procedures for viral, rickettsial, and chlamydial infections. Washington, D.C: American Public Health Association; 1979. p. 471–534.Google Scholar
  4. Pallansch MA, Oberste MS. Enteroviruses and parechoviruses. In: Specter S, Hodinka RL, Young SA, editors. Clinical virology manual. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2009. p. 249–82.Google Scholar
  5. Pallansch MA, Roos R. Enteroviruses: polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, and newer enteroviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, Griffin DE, et al., editors. Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. p. 839–93.Google Scholar
  6. Racaniello VR. Picornaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology, vol. 1. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 795–838.Google Scholar
  7. Rotbart HA, editor. Human enterovirus infections. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 1995.Google Scholar
  8. Semler BL, Wimmer E, editors. Molecular biology of the picornaviruses. Washington, DC: ASM Press; 2002.Google Scholar
  9. Tracy S, Oberste MS, et al., editors. Group B Coxsackieviruses. Current topics in microbiology and immunology. Berlin: Springer; 2008.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Viral DiseasesNational Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Epidemiology Branch, Division of Viral DiseasesNational Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations