Enteroviruses and Parechoviruses: Echoviruses, Coxsackieviruses, and Others

Chapter

Abstract

Enteroviruses (family Picornaviridae) are ubiquitous human pathogens, with a wide range of clinical presentations, including asymptomatic infection, mild illness such as common colds and undifferentiated fever, febrile rash (hand, foot, and mouth disease, herpangina, Boston exanthem), conjunctivitis, aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, myocarditis, and acute flaccid paralysis. There are over 100 enterovirus types defined, traditionally by antigenic tests but more recently according to genome sequence criteria. The human parechoviruses were formerly classified as enteroviruses but now constitute their own genus in Picornaviridae; however, their spectrum of illness is essentially the same as that of the enteroviruses. The viruses are primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral and respiratory routes, with a distinct spring-to-fall seasonality in temperate climates.

Keywords

Pneumonia Influenza Pancreatitis Explosive Sewage 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are indebted to the late Dr. Joseph Melnick, enterovirus pioneer and author of the previous edition of this chapter. His outstanding text has helped guide the development of the current edition.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Viral DiseasesNational Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.Epidemiology Branch, Division of Viral DiseasesNational Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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