Solar Surface and Atmospheric Dynamics

The Photosphere
Part of the Space Sciences Series of ISSI book series (SSSI, volume 47)

Abstract

Various aspects of the magnetism of the quiet sun are reviewed. The suggestion that a small scale dynamo acting at granular scales generates what we call the quiet sun fields is studied in some detail. Although dynamo action has been proved numerically, it is argued that current simulations are still far from achieving the complexity that might be present on the Sun. We based this statement not so much on the low magnetic Reynolds numbers used in the simulations but, above all, in the smallness of the kinetic Reynolds numbers employed by them. It is argued that the low magnetic Prandtl number at the solar surface may pose unexpected problems for the identification of the observed internetwork fields with dynamo action at granular scales. Some form of turbulent dynamo at bigger (and deeper) scales is favored. The comparison between the internetwork fields observed by Hinode and the magnetism inferred from Hanle measurements are converging towards a similar description. They are both described as randomly oriented, largely transverse fields in the several hecto-Gauss range. These similarities are ever making more natural to assume that they are the same. However, and because of the large voids of magnetic flux observed in the spatial distribution of the internetwork fields, it is argued that they are not likely to be generated by dynamo action in the intergranular lanes. It is concluded that if a dynamo is acting at granular scales, the end product might have not been observed yet at current spatial resolutions and sensitivities with the Zeeman effect. Thus an effort to increase these resolutions and polarimetric sensitivities must be made. New ground- and space-based telescopes are needed. The opportunity offered by the Solar Orbiter mission to observe the Quiet Sun dynamics at the poles is seen as one of the most important tests for confirming the existence, or otherwise, of a granularly driven surface dynamo.

Keywords

Quiet Sun magnetism Turbulent dynamo 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. W.P. Abbett, The magnetic connection between the convection zone and corona in the quiet Sun. Astrophys. J. 665, 1469–1488 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. A. Asensio Ramos, Evidence for quasi-isotropic magnetic fields from Hinode quiet-Sun observations. Astrophys. J. 701, 1032–1043 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. G.K. Batchelor, On the spontaneous magnetic field in a conducting liquid in turbulent motion. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 201, 405–416 (1950) ADSCrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. L.R. Bellot Rubio, D. Orozco Suárez, Pervasive linear polarization signals in the quiet Sun. Astrophys. J. 757, 19 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. S. Boldyrev, F. Cattaneo, Magnetic-field generation in Kolmogorov turbulence. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(14), 144501 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. J.M. Borrero, P. Kobel, Inferring the magnetic field vector in the quiet Sun. I. Photon noise and selection criteria. Astron. Astrophys. 527, 29 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. A. Brandenburg, Nonlinear small-scale dynamos at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. Astrophys. J. 741, 92 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. F. Cattaneo, On the origin of magnetic fields in the quiet photosphere. Astrophys. J. Lett. 515, 39–42 (1999) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. R. Centeno, H. Socas-Navarro, B. Lites, M. Kubo, Z. Frank, R. Shine, T. Tarbell, A. Title, K. Ichimoto, S. Tsuneta, Y. Katsukawa, Y. Suematsu, T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, Emergence of small-scale magnetic loops in the quiet-Sun internetwork. Astrophys. J. Lett. 666, 137–140 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. M. Collados, F. Bettonvil, L. Cavaller, I. Ermolli, B. Gelly, A. Pérez, H. Socas-Navarro, D. Soltau, R. Volkmer (EST Team), European Solar Telescope: progress status. Astron. Nachr. 331, 615 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. S. Danilovic, M. Schüssler, S.K. Solanki, Probing quiet Sun magnetism using MURaM simulations and Hinode/SP results: support for a local dynamo. Astron. Astrophys. 513, 1 (2010a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. S. Danilovic, B. Beeck, A. Pietarila, M. Schüssler, S.K. Solanki, V. Martínez Pillet, J.A. Bonet, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, V. Domingo, P. Barthol, T. Berkefeld, A. Gandorfer, M. Knölker, W. Schmidt, A.M. Title, Transverse component of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere observed by SUNRISE. Astrophys. J. Lett. 723, 149–153 (2010b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. A.G. de Wijn, J.O. Stenflo, S.K. Solanki, S. Tsuneta, Small-scale solar magnetic fields. Space Sci. Rev. 144, 275–315 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. A. Gandorfer, S.K. Solanki, J. Woch, V. Martínez Pillet, A. Álvarez Herrero, T. Appourchaux, The solar orbiter mission and its polarimetric and helioseismic imager (SO/PHI). J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 271(1), 012086 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. P. Gömöry, C. Beck, H. Balthasar, J. Rybák, A. Kučera, J. Koza, H. Wöhl, Magnetic loop emergence within a granule. Astron. Astrophys. 511, 14 (2010) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. S.L. Guglielmino, V. Martínez Pillet, J.A. Bonet, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, L.R. Bellot Rubio, S.K. Solanki, W. Schmidt, A. Gandorfer, P. Barthol, M. Knölker, The frontier between small-scale bipoles and ephemeral regions in the solar photosphere: emergence and decay of an intermediate-scale bipole observed with SUNRISE/IMaX. Astrophys. J. 745, 160 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. H.J. Hagenaar, C.J. Schrijver, A.M. Title, The properties of small magnetic regions on the solar surface and the implications for the solar dynamo(s). Astrophys. J. 584, 1107–1119 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. J.W. Harvey, D. Branston, C.J. Henney, C.U. Keller (SOLIS and GONG Teams), Seething horizontal magnetic fields in the quiet solar photosphere. Astrophys. J. Lett. 659, 177–180 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. R. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneta, The relationship between vertical and horizontal magnetic fields in the quiet Sun. Astrophys. J. 735, 74 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. R. Ishikawa, S. Tsuneta, J. Jurčák, Three-dimensional view of transient horizontal magnetic fields in the photosphere. Astrophys. J. 713, 1310–1321 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. A.B. Iskakov, A.A. Schekochihin, S.C. Cowley, J.C. McWilliams, M.R.E. Proctor, Numerical demonstration of fluctuation dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(20), 208501 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. S.L. Keil, T.R. Rimmele, J. Wagner, D. Elmore (ATST Team), ATST: the largest polarimeter, in Solar Polarization 6, ed. by J.R. Kuhn, D.M. Harrington, H. Lin, S.V. Berdyugina, J. Trujillo-Bueno, S.L. Keil, T. Rimmele. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 437 (2011), p. 319 Google Scholar
  23. C. Keller, The advanced solar telescope: I. Science goals, in High Resolution Sol. Phys.: Theory, Observations, and Techniques, ed. by T.R. Rimmele, K.S. Balasubramaniam, R.R. Radick. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 183 (1999), p. 169 Google Scholar
  24. C.U. Keller, F.-L. Deubner, U. Egger, B. Fleck, H.P. Povel, On the strength of solar intra-network fields. Astron. Astrophys. 286, 626–634 (1994) ADSGoogle Scholar
  25. L. Kleint, A.I. Shapiro, S.V. Berdyugina, M. Bianda, Solar turbulent magnetic fields: non-LTE modeling of the Hanle effect in the C2 molecule. Astron. Astrophys. 536, 47 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. T. Kosugi, K. Matsuzaki, T. Sakao, T. Shimizu, Y. Sone, S. Tachikawa, T. Hashimoto, K. Minesugi, A. Ohnishi, T. Yamada, S. Tsuneta, H. Hara, K. Ichimoto, Y. Suematsu, M. Shimojo, T. Watanabe, S. Shimada, J.M. Davis, L.D. Hill, J.K. Owens, A.M. Title, J.L. Culhane, L.K. Harra, G.A. Doschek, L. Golub, The Hinode (Solar-B) mission: an overview. Sol. Phys. 243, 3–17 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. H. Lin, On the distribution of the solar magnetic fields. Astrophys. J. 446, 421 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. B.W. Lites, Hinode observations suggesting the presence of a local small-scale turbulent dynamo. Astrophys. J. 737, 52 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. B.W. Lites, et al., The horizontal magnetic flux of the quiet-Sun internetwork as observed with the Hinode spectro-polarimeter. Astrophys. J. 672, 1237–1253 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. B.W. Lites, K.D. Leka, A. Skumanich, V. Martinez Pillet, T. Shimizu, Small-scale horizontal magnetic fields in the solar photosphere. Astrophys. J. 460, 1019 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. B.W. Lites, M. Kubo, H. Socas-Navarro, T. Berger, Z. Frank, R. Shine, T. Tarbell, A.M. Title, K. Ichimoto, Y. Katsukawa, S. Tsuneta, Y. Suematsu, T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, Has Hinode revealed the missing turbulent flux of the quiet Sun?, in Solar Polarization 5: In Honor of Jan Stenflo, ed. by S.V. Berdyugina, K.N. Nagendra, R. Ramelli. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 405 (2009), p. 173 Google Scholar
  32. M.J. Martínez González, L.R. Bellot Rubio, Emergence of small-scale magnetic loops through the quiet solar atmosphere. Astrophys. J. 700, 1391–1403 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. M.J. Martínez González, R. Manso Sainz, A. Asensio Ramos, E. Hijano, Dead calm areas in the very quiet Sun. Astrophys. J. 755, 175 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. V. Martínez Pillet, J.C. Del Toro Iniesta, A. Álvarez-Herrero, V. Domingo, J.A. Bonet, L. González Fernández, A. López Jiménez, C. Pastor, J.L. Gasent Blesa, P. Mellado, J. Piqueras, B. Aparicio, M. Balaguer, E. Ballesteros, T. Belenguer, L.R. Bellot Rubio, T. Berkefeld, M. Collados, W. Deutsch, A. Feller, F. Girela, B. Grauf, R.L. Heredero, M. Herranz, J.M. Jerónimo, H. Laguna, R. Meller, M. Menéndez, R. Morales, D. Orozco Suárez, G. Ramos, M. Reina, J.L. Ramos, P. Rodríguez, A. Sánchez, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, M. Knoelker, W. Schmidt, S.K. Solanki, S. Vargas Domínguez, The imaging magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX) for the sunrise Balloon-Borne solar observatory. Sol. Phys. 268, 57–102 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. N. Meunier, R. Tkaczuk, T. Roudier, M. Rieutord, Velocities and divergences as a function of supergranule size. Astron. Astrophys. 461, 1141–1147 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. R. Moll, J. Pietarila Graham, J. Pratt, R.H. Cameron, W.-C. Müller, M. Schüssler, Universality of the small-scale dynamo mechanism. Astrophys. J. 736, 36 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. D. Müller, R.G. Marsden, O.C. St. Cyr, H.R. Gilbert, Solar orbiter. Sol. Phys. 193 (2012) Google Scholar
  38. A. Nordlund, A. Brandenburg, R.L. Jennings, M. Rieutord, J. Ruokolainen, R.F. Stein, I. Tuominen, Dynamo action in stratified convection with overshoot. Astrophys. J. 392, 647–652 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. D. Orozco Suárez, L.R. Bellot Rubio, Analysis of quiet-Sun internetwork magnetic fields based on linear polarization signals. Astrophys. J. 751, 2 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. D. Orozco Suárez, L.R. Bellot Rubio, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, S. Tsuneta, B.W. Lites, K. Ichimoto, Y. Katsukawa, S. Nagata, T. Shimizu, R.A. Shine, Y. Suematsu, T.D. Tarbell, A.M. Title, Quiet-Sun internetwork magnetic fields from the inversion of Hinode measurements. Astrophys. J. Lett. 670, 61–64 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. K. Petrovay, G. Szakaly, The origin of intranetwork fields: a small-scale solar dynamo. Astron. Astrophys. 274, 543 (1993) ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. J. Pietarila Graham, R. Cameron, M. Schüssler, Turbulent small-scale dynamo action in solar surface simulations. Astrophys. J. 714, 1606–1616 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. J. Pietarila Graham, S. Danilovic, M. Schüssler, The small-scale solar surface dynamo (keynote), in The Second Hinode Science Meeting: Beyond Discovery-Toward Understanding, ed. by B. Lites, M. Cheung, T. Magara, J. Mariska, K. Reeves. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 415 (2009a), p. 43 Google Scholar
  44. J. Pietarila Graham, S. Danilovic, M. Schüssler, Turbulent magnetic fields in the quiet Sun: implications of Hinode observations and small-scale dynamo simulations. Astrophys. J. 693, 1728–1735 (2009b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. B. Ruiz Cobo, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, Inversion of Stokes profiles. Astrophys. J. 398, 375–385 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. J. Sánchez Almeida, On the Sr I λ4607 Å Hanle depolarization signals in the quiet Sun. Astron. Astrophys. 438, 727–732 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. J. Sánchez Almeida, M. Martínez González, The magnetic fields of the quiet Sun, in Solar Polarization 6, ed. by J.R. Kuhn, D.M. Harrington, H. Lin, S.V. Berdyugina, J. Trujillo-Bueno, S.L. Keil, T. Rimmele. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 437 (2011), p. 451 Google Scholar
  48. J. Sánchez Almeida, T. Emonet, F. Cattaneo, Polarization of photospheric lines from turbulent dynamo simulations. Astrophys. J. 585, 536–552 (2003) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. A.A. Schekochihin, S.C. Cowley, J.L. Maron, J.C. McWilliams, Critical magnetic Prandtl number for small-scale dynamo. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(5), 054502 (2004a) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. A.A. Schekochihin, S.C. Cowley, S.F. Taylor, J.L. Maron, J.C. McWilliams, Simulations of the small-scale turbulent dynamo. Astrophys. J. 612, 276–307 (2004b) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. A.A. Schekochihin, N.E.L. Haugen, A. Brandenburg, S.C. Cowley, J.L. Maron, J.C. McWilliams, The onset of a small-scale turbulent dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. Astrophys. J. Lett. 625, 115–118 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. A.A. Schekochihin, A.B. Iskakov, S.C. Cowley, J.C. McWilliams, M.R.E. Proctor, T.A. Yousef, Fluctuation dynamo and turbulent induction at low magnetic Prandtl numbers. New J. Phys. 9, 300 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. P.H. Scherrer, J. Schou, R.I. Bush, A.G. Kosovichev, R.S. Bogart, J.T. Hoeksema, Y. Liu, T.L. Duvall, J. Zhao, A.M. Title, C.J. Schrijver, T.D. Tarbell, S. Tomczyk, The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) investigation for the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Sol. Phys. 275, 207–227 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. M. Schüssler, A. Vögler, Strong horizontal photospheric magnetic field in a surface dynamo simulation. Astron. Astrophys. 481, 5–8 (2008) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. N. Shchukina, J. Trujillo Bueno, Determining the magnetization of the quiet Sun photosphere from the Hanle effect and surface dynamo simulations. Astrophys. J. Lett. 731, 21 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. S.K. Solanki, Photospheric magnetic field: quiet Sun, in Solar Polarization 5: In Honor of Jan Stenflo, ed. by S.V. Berdyugina, K.N. Nagendra, R. Ramelli. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 405 (2009) p. 135 Google Scholar
  57. S.K. Solanki, P. Barthol, S. Danilovic, A. Feller, A. Gandorfer, J. Hirzberger, T.L. Riethmüller, M. Schüssler, J.A. Bonet, V. Martínez Pillet, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, V. Domingo, J. Palacios, M. Knölker, N. Bello González, T. Berkefeld, M. Franz, W. Schmidt, A.M. Title, SUNRISE: instrument, mission, data, and first results. Astrophys. J. Lett. 723, 127–133 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. H.C. Spruit, A model of the solar convection zone. Sol. Phys. 34, 277–290 (1974) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. R.F. Stein, Solar surface magneto-convection. Living Rev. Sol. Phys. 9, 4 (2012) ADSGoogle Scholar
  60. R.F. Stein, Å. Nordlund, Solar small-scale magnetoconvection. Astrophys. J. 642, 1246–1255 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. R.F. Stein, D. Bercik, Å. Nordlund, Solar surface magneto-convection, in Current Theoretical Models and Future High Resolution Solar Observations: Preparing for ATST, ed. by A.A. Pevtsov, H. Uitenbroek. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 286 (2003), p. 121 Google Scholar
  62. O. Steiner, R. Rezaei, Recent advances in the exploration of the small-scale structure of the quiet solar atmosphere: vortex flows, the horizontal magnetic field, and the Stokes-V line-ratio method, in Fifth Hinode Science Meeting, ed. by L. Golub, I. De Moortel, T. Shimizu. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 456 (2012), p. 3 Google Scholar
  63. O. Steiner, R. Rezaei, W. Schaffenberger, S. Wedemeyer-Böhm, The horizontal internetwork magnetic field: numerical simulations in comparison to observations with Hinode. Astrophys. J. Lett. 680, 85–88 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. J.O. Stenflo, The Hanle effect and the diagnostics of turbulent magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. Sol. Phys. 80, 209–226 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. J.O. Stenflo, Unsolved problems in solar polarization, in Solar Polarization 6, ed. by J.R. Kuhn, D.M. Harrington, H. Lin, S.V. Berdyugina, J. Trujillo-Bueno, S.L. Keil, T. Rimmele. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 437 (2011), p. 3 Google Scholar
  66. J.O. Stenflo, Basal magnetic flux and the local solar dynamo. Astron. Astrophys. (2012). doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201219833 Google Scholar
  67. A.M. Title, T.D. Tarbell, K.P. Topka, S.H. Ferguson, R.A. Shine (SOUP Team), Statistical properties of solar granulation derived from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2. Astrophys. J. 336, 475–494 (1989) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. J. Trujillo Bueno, Modeling scattering polarization for probing solar magnetism, in Solar Polarization 6, ed. by J.R. Kuhn, D.M. Harrington, H. Lin, S.V. Berdyugina, J. Trujillo-Bueno, S.L. Keil, T. Rimmele. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 437 (2011), p. 83 Google Scholar
  69. J. Trujillo Bueno, A. Asensio Ramos, N. Shchukina, The Hanle effect in atomic and molecular lines: a new look at the Sun’s hidden magnetism, in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, ed. by R. Casini, B.W. Lites. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, vol. 358 (2006), p. 269 Google Scholar
  70. J. Trujillo Bueno, N. Shchukina, A. Asensio Ramos, A substantial amount of hidden magnetic energy in the quiet Sun. Nature 430, 326–329 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. S. Tsuneta, K. Ichimoto, Y. Katsukawa, S. Nagata, M. Otsubo, T. Shimizu, Y. Suematsu, M. Nakagiri, M. Noguchi, T. Tarbell, A. Title, R. Shine, W. Rosenberg, C. Hoffmann, B. Jurcevich, G. Kushner, M. Levay, B. Lites, D. Elmore, T. Matsushita, N. Kawaguchi, H. Saito, I. Mikami, L.D. Hill, J.K. Owens, The solar optical telescope for the Hinode mission: an overview. Sol. Phys. 249, 167–196 (2008) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. B. Viticchié, On the polarimetric signature of emerging magnetic loops in the quiet Sun. Astrophys. J. Lett. 747, 36 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. A. Vögler, M. Schüssler, A solar surface dynamo. Astron. Astrophys. 465, 43–46 (2007) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. C. Westendorp Plaza, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, B. Ruiz Cobo, V. Martinez Pillet, B.W. Lites, A. Skumanich, Optical tomography of a sunspot. I. Comparison between two inversion techniques. Astrophys. J. 494, 453 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. L. Yelles Chaouche, F. Moreno-Insertis, V. Martínez Pillet, T. Wiegelmann, J.A. Bonet, M. Knölker, L.R. Bellot Rubio, J.C. del Toro Iniesta, P. Barthol, A. Gandorfer, W. Schmidt, S.K. Solanki, Mesogranulation and the solar surface magnetic field distribution. Astrophys. J. 727, 30 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Astrofísica de CanariasLa Laguna, TenerifeSpain

Personalised recommendations