Links Between Injury-Induced Brain Remodeling and Oncogenesis

Chapter
Part of the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine book series (STEMCELL)

Abstract

The remarkable progress achieved in the identification of potential cellular and molecular players in neural tissue repair puts us at the edge of the development of therapeutic strategies that could effectively alleviate the consequences of CNS injuries. In face of this novel hope, it appears timely to assess the data derived from research on brain repair and on brain neoplasms. The cell rearrangements initiated by injury to nervous tissues are indeed characterized by the transient reacquisition of features usually associated with cancer cells including genomic perturbations, reentrance into the cell cycle, and aberrant cell differentiation. All these changes can be viewed as intrinsic neoplastic features of neural cells reacting to tissue injuries. The existence of common features between brain cancer cells, developing neural cells of the immature and mature brain, and/or injured nervous tissues has to be acknowledged in order to develop the most appropriate therapeutic strategies.

Keywords

Migration Ischemia Tyrosine Recombination Germinal 

Abbreviations

8-OxoG

8-Oxoguanine

Ascl1

Achaete–scute complex-like 1

ATM

Ataxia telangiectasia mutated

ATR

Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related

bFGF

Fibroblast growth factor 2 (basic)

BRAC1

Breast cancer 1

BRCA2

Breast cancer 2

Brn2a

Brain-2

CDK

Cyclin-dependent kinase

chk1

Checkpoint kinase 1

chk2

Checkpoint kinase 2

CNS

Central nervous system

CNV

Copy number variations

CSC

Cancer stem cells

DSBs

DNA double-strand breaks

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

GFAP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein

GSC

Glioma stem cells

H3K27me

Histone H3 lysine 27 methylation

H3K4me

Histone H3 lysine 4 methylation

H3K9me

Histone H3 lysine 9 methylation

ΗΒ-ΕGF

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor

HR

Homologous recombination

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent cells

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MEK

MAPK/ERK kinase

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

Myt1l

Myelin transcription factor-like 1

NEIL1

Endonuclease VIII-like 1

NEIL3

Endonuclease VIII-like 3

NF1

Neurofibromin 1

NHEJ

Nonhomologous end-joining

NPC

Neural progenitor cells

NSC

Neural stem cells

OGG1

8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase

PDGFR

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

Rb

Retinoblastoma

RCAS-TVA

Replication-competent avian sarcoma-leukosis virus splice acceptor-avian receptor tv-a

RTK

Tyrosine kinase receptors

SSA

Single-strand annealing

Shh

Sonic hedgehog

TGFα

Transforming growth factor alpha

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research of the authors is supported by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale Inserm (France), INCa (Grant PLBIO2012), and the foundations ARC and La Ligue contre le cancer (Grant Equipe Ligue 2013). E. El-Habr benefited from a fellowship of Région Ile de France.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.French Institute of Health and Medical Research U1130, French National Center for Scientific ResearchPierre-and-Marie-Curie UniversityParisFrance

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