Advertisement

Fipronil: Environmental Fate, Ecotoxicology, and Human Health Concerns

  • Colin C. D. Tingle
  • Joachim A. Rother
  • Charles F. Dewhurst
  • Sasha Lauer
  • William J. King
Part of the Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology book series (RECT, volume 176)

Abstract

Fipronil is a commercial insecticide discovered and developed by Rhône-Poulenc between 1985 and 1987 and released to the market in 1993. It is a member of a relatively new and small class of pesticides, the phenyl pyrazoles or fiproles, which are principally chemicals having herbicidal effects (Rhône-Poulenc 1995). Fipronil, however, acts as an insecticide with contact and stomach action. It is highly effective against a variety of insect pests, but concerns have been voiced about its environmental and human health effects (USEPA 1996; World Bank 1998; Dinham 2000). Its use worldwide is increasing, and it has been actively marketed throughout a wide range of industrialized and developing countries (Anonymous 2000a–e).

Keywords

Integrate Pest Management Acceptable Daily Intake Boll Weevil German Cockroach Piperonyl Butoxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AAAI (2000) Quarterly report on the state of acridid outbreaks. Northern hemisphere 1. Association of Applied Acridology International, Laramie, Wyoming, USA.Google Scholar
  2. ACP (1999) Evaluation of fipronil use as a public hygiene insecticide. Advisory Committee on Pesticides. Food and Environment Protection Act 1985, part III. Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986. No. 187. Issue No. 52. Pesticides Safety Directorate, MAFF, York, UK.Google Scholar
  3. ACP (2000) Minutes of the 274th Meeting of the Advisory Committee on PesticidesGoogle Scholar
  4. (ACP), on 24th February 2000. http://www.maff.gov.uk/aboutmaf/agency/psd/news/acp-274_mins.htm
  5. Ahmed B, French JRJ, Kwint P, Webb G (1997) Laboratory evaluation of fipronil (a phenyl pyrazole) as a candidate termiticide in the protection of wood against the subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) Rhinotermitidae. The International Research Group on Wood Preservation. IRG/WP/97-10225. The 28th Annual Meeting, Whistler, B.C., Canada, 25-30 May 1997.Google Scholar
  6. Ali A, Nayar JK, Gu WD (1998) Toxicity of a phenyl pyrazole insecticide, fipronil, to mosquito and chironomid midge larvae in the laboratory. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 14:216–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ali A, Chowdhury MA, Hossain MI, Mahmud-ul-Ameen, Habiba DB, Aslam AFM (1999) Laboratory evaluation of selected larvicides and insect growth regulators against field collected Culex quinquefasciatus larvae from urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 15:43–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Allen CT, Frizzell S, Scott K, Willis S, Riddle A, Haynes J (1997) Plant bug control test. Spec Rep 183. Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, USA pp 177–180.Google Scholar
  9. Anonymous (1997) Rhône-Poulenc Agro to boost fipronil production. Agrow 294:17.Google Scholar
  10. Anonymous (2000a) Aventis sales flat in 1999. Agrow 346:3.Google Scholar
  11. Anonymous (2000b) Aventis to group Thai plants. Agrow 346:7.Google Scholar
  12. Anonymous (2000c) Aventis fipronil deal in China. Agrow 350:1.Google Scholar
  13. Anonymous (2000d) Aventis starts in Ivory Coast. Agrow 352:3.Google Scholar
  14. Anonymous (2000e) Aventis sets up e-business in Brazil. Agrow 357:4.Google Scholar
  15. APLC (1999) Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) Annual Report 1996-97. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia. APLC, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  16. APLC (2000) Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) Annual Report 1998-99. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australia. APLC, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
  17. Araujo FR, Silva MP, Lopes AA, Ribeiro OC, Pires PP, Carvalho CME, Balbuena CB, Villas AA, Ramos JKM (1998) Severe cat flea infestation of dairy calves in Brazil. Vet Parasitol 80:83–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Atwell R, Postal JM, Fitzgerald M, Kendall K, Kidd C, Howlett B, Jensen C, Johnstone I, Menrath V (1996a) Clinical field assessment of a topical preparation of fipronil in domestic cats with application by their owners. Aust Vet Pract 26:154.Google Scholar
  19. Atwell R, Sillar R, Jeanin P, Postal JM, Consalvi PJ (1996b) The effects of fipronil on Ixodes holocyclus on dogs in northern NSW. Aust Vet Pract 26:155.Google Scholar
  20. Aventis (2000b) Aventis CropScience Chinese Insecticide Joint Venture Approved. http://www2.aventis.com/press/pr_071.htm
  21. Avery ML, Primus TM, Mihaich EM, Decker DG, Humphrey JS (1998) Consumption of fipronil-treated rice seeds does not affect captive blackbirds. Pestic Sci 52:91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Balança G, de Visscher M-N (1995) Essais fipronil: résultats sur la faune non-cible. Essais environnementaux du Prifas. Atelier International Fipronil/lutte antiacridienne, Lyon 3–5, May 1995. Unpublished report. Rhône-Poulenc Agrochimie, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  23. Balança G, de Visscher M-N (1996) Les effets de très faibles doses de fipronil sur diverses espèces de sauteriaux et d’insectes non cibles. Résultats expérimentaux obtenus par le CIRAD-GERDAT-PRIFAS au Niger (juillet à novembre 1995). Document 539. CIRAD-GERDAT-PRIFAS, Montpellier, France.Google Scholar
  24. Balança G, de Visscher M-N (1997a) Impacts on non-target insects of a new insecticide compound used against the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forskàl 1775). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Balança G, de Visscher M-N (1997b) Effects of very low fipronil doses on grasshoppers and non-target insects following field trials for grasshopper control. Crop Prot 16:553–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barron MG, Woodburn KB (1995) Ecotoxicology of chlorpyrifos. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 144:1–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Beck W (1999) [Case report: pediculosis by polyplax-lice (Anoplura: Hoplopleuridae) in a mouse and rat—biology of Polyplax spp., pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment]. Kleintierpraxis 44:461–467.Google Scholar
  28. Beck W, Wrieg HH (1998) [Mange in guinea pigs caused by Trixacarus caviae (Acari: Sarcoptidae): biology of Trixacarus caviae, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment]. Kleintierpraxis 43:703–708.Google Scholar
  29. Belayneh YT (1998) Amendment III to the USAID/Madagascar supplemental environmental assessment for locust control program: options for including fipronil as an anti-locust insecticide. Unpublished report. USAID, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Bertók B, Árvai G, Ribai Kurucz Z (undated) Preparation of insecticide synergists of benzyl ethers. http://www.chemsoc.org/chempest/html/1A-0018.html
  31. Bloomquist JR, Robinson WH, Rettich F, Rambo GW (1999) Prevalence and magnitude of resistance to cyclodiene and phenylpyrazole insecticides in Blattella germanica and Drosophila melanogaster. Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests, Prague, Czech Republic, 19–22 July 1999, pp 27-34.Google Scholar
  32. Bobé A, Meallier P, Cooper JF, Coste CM (1997) Kinetics and mechanisms of abiotic degradation of fipronil (hydrolysis and photolysis). J Agric Food Chem 46:2834–2839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bobé A, Cooper J, Coste CM, Muller M-A (1998) Behaviour of fipronil in soil under Sahelian plain field conditions. Pestic Sci 52:275–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bond R (1998) Diagnosis and treatment of canine scabies. In Practice 20:308–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bordeau W (1998) [Treatment of a case of canine sarcoptic mange using fipronil]. Pratique Medicale et Chirurgicale de l’Animal de Compagnie 33:521–526.Google Scholar
  36. Bostian AL, Long ND (1997) Rhône-Poulenc Agro position paper on: DANIDA report: some ecological effects of fipronil (‘Regent’), (λ-cyhalothrin (‘Karate’), in Vietnamese rice fields. Report/file number ALB/R0897-235.Google Scholar
  37. Chadwick AJ (1997) Use of a 0.25% fipronil pump spray formulation to treat canine cheyletiellosis. J Small Anim Pract 38:261–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Christian M, Young H, Yang H, Olive L (1997) Fipronil insecticide for early season thrips control across the cotton belt. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA (chairs), Ottens RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences USA, Vol 2, Jan. 6–10, 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 1168-1171.Google Scholar
  39. Cochet P, Birkel P, Bromet-Petit M, Bromet N, Weil A (1997) Skin distribution of fipronil by microautoradiography following topical administration to the beagle dog. Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet 22:211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Cole LM, Nicholson RA, Casida JE (1993). Action of phenylpyrazole insecticides at the GABA-gated chloride channel. Pestic Biochem Physiol 46:47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Collins HL, Callcott AMA (1998) Fipronil: an ultra-low dose bait toxicant for control of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Fla Entomol 81:407–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Colliot F, Kukorowski KA, Hawkins DW, Roberts DA (1992) Fipronil: a new soil and foliar broad spectrum insecticide. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases, 1992, 2-1:29–34.Google Scholar
  43. Colliot F, Morgan RN (1993) Fipronil—nouvel insecticide à large spectre pour le traitement des sols, le traitement des semences et les applications foliaires. ANPP, Troisième Conférence Internationales sur les Ravageurs en Agriculture, Montpellier, 7-8-9 Décembre, 1993.Google Scholar
  44. Cooper PE, Penaliggon J (1996) Use of fipronil to eliminate recurrent infestations by Trichodectes cards in a pack of bloodhounds. Vet Rec 139:95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cooper PE, Penaliggon J (1997) Use of Frontline (fipronil) spray on rabbits. Vet Rec 140:535–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Cutler SL (1998) Ectopic Psoroptes cuniculi infestation in a pet rabbit. J Small Anim Pract 39:86–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Danfa A, Fall B, van der Valk H (1998) Acute toxicity tests with Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), using different locust control insecticides in the Sahel. In: Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O, Mullie W (eds) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 3. LOCUSTOX Project—GCP/SEN/041/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal, pp 117-136.Google Scholar
  48. Danfa A, Ba AL, van der Valk H, Rouland-Lefevre C, Mullie WC, Everts JW (1999) Effets du chlorpyrifos et du fipronil sur les coleoptère rampants et les arthropodes du sol dans la savanne semi-aride de Fété-Olé au nord du Sénégal. Rapport Locustox Etude LCTX9802. FAO, Dakar, Senegal.Google Scholar
  49. Davey RB, George JE, Hunter JS III, Jeanin P (1999) Evaluation of a pour-on formulation of fipronil against Boophilus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) under natural south Texas field conditions. Exp Appl Acarol 23:351–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. des Vignes WG (1997) Promising insecticide candidates for use in the IPM of the sugarcane froghopper, Aeneolamia varia saccharina Dist. (Homoptera: Cercopidae) on sugar cane in Trinidad. In: Proceedings of the West Indies Sugar Technologists, 26th Conference, 1997, pp 210-218.Google Scholar
  51. Diallo AO, Diagne M, Ndour KB, Lahr J (1998) Laboratory toxicity tests with eight acridicides on Oreochromis niloticus (Pices, Cichlidae). In: Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O, Mullie W (eds) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 3. LOCUSTOX Project—GCP/SEN/041/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal, pp 188-204.Google Scholar
  52. Dinham B (2000) Poisoning an island? Locust control in Madagascar. Pestic News 48:3–6.Google Scholar
  53. Elzen GW, Maldonado SN, Rojas MG, Dugger P, Richter D (1999) Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides and an IGR on the boll weevil ectoparasite Catolaccus grandis. In: Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, USA, Vol 2, Jan. 3–7 1999, Orlando, FL, pp. 1204–1206.Google Scholar
  54. Ester A, Vogel R de, Bouma E (1997) Controlling Thrips tabaci (Lind.) in leek by film coating seeds with insecticides. Crop Prot 16:673–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Estrada-Pena A, Ascher F (1999) Comparison of an amitraz-impregnated collar with topical administration of fipronil for prevention of experimental and natural infestations by the brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus). J Am Vet Med Assoc 214:1799–1803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Everts JW (1997) in litt. Letter to Dr. C. Tingle, Environmental Sciences Department, Natural Resources Institute, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  57. Everts JW (1997) Ecotoxicology for risk assessment in arid zones: some key issues. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Everts JW (2000) in litt. Letter to Dr. C. Tingle, Natural Resource Management Department, Natural Resources Institute, September 14, 2000.Google Scholar
  59. Everts JW, Ba L (1997) Environmental effects of chemical locust control. In: Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O (eds) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 1. LOCUSTOX Project—GCP/SEN/041/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal. pp. 1-14.Google Scholar
  60. Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O, Mullie W (eds) (1998a) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 2. LOCUSTOX Project—GCP/SEN/041/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal.Google Scholar
  61. Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O, Mullie W (eds) (1998b) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 3. LOCUSTOX Project—GCP/SEN/041/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal.Google Scholar
  62. FAO (1996) Evaluation of field trial data of the effectiveness of insecticides against locusts and grasshoppers. Report to the FAO by the locust pesticides referee group, 20-22 September 1995. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  63. FAO (1998) Pesticide Residues in food—1997. Report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues, Lyons, France, 22 Sept–1 Oct 1997. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 145. FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  64. Franc M, Cadiergues MC (1998) Antifeeding effect of several insecticidal formulations against Ctenocephalides felis on cats. Parasite 5:83–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Gadji B, Ndiaye MD, Diop A, Djighaly A (1997) Déposition et disparition du fipronil sur feuilles de mil, sur herbe, sur feuilles sèches de Boscia senegalensis et sur sol au Sénégal (campagne 1995 et campagne 1996). Rapport Locustox 97/15. FAO, Dakar, Senegal.Google Scholar
  66. Goller G, Duchene P, Maestracci M (2000) Residue analysis of fipronil and its metabolites observed in leek samples. http://www.chemsoc.org/chempest/html/7B-0053.html
  67. Grant DB, Bloomquist JR, Ayad HH, Chalmers AE (1990) A comparison of mammalian and insect GABA receptor chloride channels. Pestic Sci 30:355–356.Google Scholar
  68. Grant DB, Chalmers AE, Wolff MA, Hoffman HB, Bushey DF, Kuhr RJ, Motoyama N (1998) Fipronil: action at the GABA receptor. In: Pesticides and the Future: Minimizing Chronic Exposure of Humans and the Environment. IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp 147–156.Google Scholar
  69. Grant IF, Tingle CCD (in press) Ecological monitoring methods for the assessment of pesticide impact in the tropics. CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  70. Greig-Smith PW, Thompson HM, Hardy AR, Bew MH, Findlay E, Stevenson JH (1994) Incidents of poisoning of honeybees (Apis mellifera) by agricultural pesticides in Great Britain 1981-1991. Crop Prot 13:567–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Grout TG, Richards GI, Stephen PR (1997) Further non-target effects of citrus pesticides on Euseius addoensis and Euseius citri (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Exp Appl Acarol 21:171–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hainzl D, Casida JE (1996) Fipronil insecticide: novel photochemical desulfinylation with retention of neurotoxicity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12764–12767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hamon NM, Gamboa H, Garcia JEM (1996) Fipronil: a major advance for the control of boll weevil in Columbia. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA (chairs), Ottens RJ, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  74. CS, Nelms JV (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences USA, Vol 2, Jan. 9-12 1996, Nashville, TN. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 990-994.Google Scholar
  75. Harvey RG, Penaliggon EJ, Gautier P (1997) Prospective study comparing fipronil with dichlorvos/fenitrothion and methoprene/pyrethrins in control of flea bite hypersensitivity in cats. Vet Rec 141:628–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Henderson G, Forschler BT (1997) Termite bait tests. La Agric 40:9–11.Google Scholar
  77. Hill RN, Erdreich LS, Paynter OE, Roberts PA, Rosenthal SL, Wilkinson CF (1989) Thyroid follicular cell carcinogenesis. Fundam Appl Toxicol 12:629–697.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hugnet C, Cadore JL, Bourdoiseau G (1999) [Use of fipronil spray (0.25%) for the treatment of Damalinia equi [Wereckiella equi] infestation]. Prat Vet Equine 31:65–68.Google Scholar
  79. Hunter D, Spurgin P (2000) Fipronil and fenitrothion for locust control in Australia: less is more. Adv Appl Acridol 2000:4. AAAI, Laramie, Wyoming, USA.Google Scholar
  80. Hutchinson MJ, Jacobs DE, Fox MT, Jeanin P, Postal JM (1998) Evaluation of flea control strategies using fipronil on cats in a controlled simulated home environment. Vet Rec 142:356–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. IPCS (1990) Deltamethrin. Environmental Health Criteria 97. International Programme on Chemical Safety. UNEP/ILO/WHO, WHO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  82. Jacklin MR (1997) Dermatosis associated with Acarus farris in gerbils. J Small Anim Pract 38:410–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Johnsen S (1997) In litt. Letter to Dr. J. Waage, IIBC. Re: Research reports on ‘Regent’, ‘Karate’ and some herbicides.Google Scholar
  84. Johnsen S, Le Thi Thu Huong, Kim Thuy Ngoc, Trinh Dieu Thuy (1997a) Some ecological effects of fipronil (‘Regent’), (λ-cyhalothrin (‘Karate’), in Vietnamese rice fields. Report: Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programme in Rice Growing Regions of Tropical Asia. DANIDA, AITCV, Hanoi, Vietnam.Google Scholar
  85. Johnsen S, Le Thi Thu Huong, Kim Thuy Ngoc, Trinh Dieu Thuy (1997b) Some ecological effects of fipronil (‘Regent’), (λ-cyhalothrin (‘Karate’), 2,4, D and fenoxaprop-p-ethyl (‘Whip S’) in a frequently sprayed rice field in the Mekong Delta. Report: Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programme in Rice Growing Regions of Tropical Asia. DANIDA, AITCV, Hanoi, Vietnam.Google Scholar
  86. Johnsen S, Le Thi Thu Huong, Kim Thuy Ngoc, Nguyen Duy Anh Duc (1997c) A comparison of the effects of ‘Regent’ and a foliar fertilizer on yields of rice in Ha Bac Province, Viet Nam. Report: Impact of Integrated Pest Management Programme in Rice Growing Regions of Tropical Asia. DANIDA, AITCV, Hanoi, Vietnam.Google Scholar
  87. Johnsen S, Le Thi Thu Huong, Kim Thuy Ngoc, Trinh Dieu Thuy (1998) Insecticides disrupt IPM. Pestic News 39:12–13.Google Scholar
  88. Kaakeh N, Kaakeh W, Bennett GW (1996) Topical toxicity of imidachloprid, fipronil and seven conventional insecticides to the adult convergent lady beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). J Entomol Sci 31:315–322.Google Scholar
  89. King WJ, Aigreau D (1999) Analysis of fipronil residues on soil and vegetation. Unpublished report, NRI, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  90. King WJ, Aigreau D (2000) Comparison of analysis of fipronil residues on soil and vegetation carried out by NRI and DPV (Madagascar). Unpublished report. NRI, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  91. Lahr J (2000) Effects of insecticides on invertebrates in temporary ponds in the Sahel. Ecotoxicology, ecological risk assessment and minimizing side-effects of locust control. Doctorate thesis, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  92. Lahr J, Badji A, Ndour KB, Diallo AO (1998) Acute toxicity tests with Streptocephalus sudanicus (Branchipoda, Anostraca) and Anisops sardeus (Hemiptera, Notonectidae) using insecticides for desert locust control. In: Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O, Mullie W (eds) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 2. LOCUSTOX Project — GCP/SEN/041/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal, pp 39-57.Google Scholar
  93. Latchininsky AV (2000) Discontinuous applications of fipronil against acridids in Russia: do barriers work? Adv Appl Acridol 2000:5.Google Scholar
  94. Lecoq M (2000) Current and future perspectives of the migratory locust plague in Madagascar. Adv Appl Acridol 2000:20.Google Scholar
  95. Lecoq M, Balança G (1998) Field trials of fipronil for control of Rhammatocerus schistocercoides (Rehn, 1906) hopper bands in Brazil. Crop Prot 17:105–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Lockwood J (2000) The RAAT strategy fast-becoming the “standard” for grasshopper pest management. Adv Appl Acridol 2000:6.Google Scholar
  97. Lockwood J, Schell SP (1997) Decreasing economic and environmental costs through reduced area and agent insecticide treatments (RAATs) for the control of rangeland grasshoppers: empirical results and their implications for pest management. J Orthopt Res 6:19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lockwood JA, Schell SP, Isu N, Norelius E, Schell S (1997) Field tests of fipronil: large scale evaluations of fipronil and small scale evaluations of RPA 107382 for control of rangeland grasshoppers in Wyoming (USA), with implications for reduced agent/area treatments. Report to Rhône-Poulenc. University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA.Google Scholar
  99. Lockwood J, Schell S, Isu N, Norelius E, Schell S (1998) Large-scale field evaluations of fipronil for control of rangeland grasshoppers in Wyoming (USA) with implications for reduced agent/area treatments. Report to Rhône-Poulenc. Entomology Section, University of Wyoming, Laramie, USA.Google Scholar
  100. LPRG (1999) Evaluation of field trials data on the efficacy and selectivity of insecticides on locusts and grasshoppers. Report to FAO by the Locust Pesticide Referee group. Eighth meeting, Rome, 11–14 October 1999.Google Scholar
  101. Martinez-Carrillo JL, Pacheco-Covarrubias JJ (1997) Comparative efficacy of regent 800 WDG (fipronil) a novel cotton boll weevil insecticide in northwestern Mexico. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA (chairs), Ottens RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences USA, Vol 2, Jan. 6–10 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 1039-1040.Google Scholar
  102. McClain RM (1992) Thyroid gland neoplasia: non-genotoxic mechanisms. Toxicol Lett 64/65:397–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Moino A Jr, Alves SB (1998) [Effects of imidacloprid and fipronil on Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. and on the grooming behaviour of Heterotermes tenais (Hagen).] An Soc Entomol Brasil 27:611–619.Google Scholar
  104. Moriarty F (1983) Ecotoxicology: The Study of Pollutants in Ecosystems. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  105. Mulrooney JE, Wolfenbarger DA, Howard KD, Goli D (1998) Efficacy of ultra low volume and high volume applications of fipronil against the boll weevil. J Cotton Sci 2(3):110–116.Google Scholar
  106. New York State Department of Environment and Conservation (1996) Division of Solid and Hazardous Materials. Letter (November 1996) to Kandy Walker Duke, Rhône Merieux. Re: registration of Frontline Top Spot for Dogs.Google Scholar
  107. Ngim KK, Crosby DG (2001) Abiotic processes influencing fipronil and desthiofipronil dissipation in California, USA, rice fields. Environ Toxicol Chem 20:972–977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ngim KK, Crosby DG (undated) Environmental fate of fipronil in California rice fields. Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, http://agchem.ucdavis.edu/colloq/kngim.htm
  109. Norris F, Wicks RJ, Jones RL, Leake CR (undated) Behaviour of fipronil in soil in Europe and the United States. IUPAC Poster Session 7C.Google Scholar
  110. Nosenchuck NH (1997) http://pmep.cce.cornell.edu/regulation/n...actions-decisions/fipronil-mcl-2-97.html.
  111. Nuttall TJ, French AT, Cheetham HC, Proctor FJ (1998) Treatment of Trombicula autumnalis infestations in dogs and cats with a 0.25 per cent fipronil pump spray. J Small Anim Pract 39:237–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Parker RD, Huffman RL (1997) Evaluation of insecticides for boll weevil control and impact on non-target arthropods on non-transgenic and transgenic B.t. cotton cultivars. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA (chairs), Otten RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences, USA, vol 2, Jan. 6–10 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 1216-1221.Google Scholar
  113. Pauli BD, Money S (2000) Ecotoxicology of pesticides in reptiles. In: Sparling DW, Linder G, Bishop CA (eds) Ecotoxicology of Amphibians and Reptiles. SETAC Press, Pensacola, pp 269–289.Google Scholar
  114. Penaliggon J (1997) Getting to grips with fleas on pet dogs and cats. Pestic Outlook 8:19–23.Google Scholar
  115. Peveling R, Demba SA (1999) Effect of Metarhizium flavoviride, chlorpyrifos, and fipronil on Acanthodactylus dumerili (Milne Edwards, 1829) (Squamata: Lacertidae). LUBILOSA bioassays in Akjoujt, Mauritania, November 1996 to February 1997.Google Scholar
  116. Peveling R (2000a) Environmental impact of fungal and chemical control agents on non-target arthropods. Adv Appl Acridol 2000:17.Google Scholar
  117. Peveling R (2000b) Toxicity of fungal and chemical locust control agents to lizards. Adv Appl Acridol 2000:17.Google Scholar
  118. Peveling R, Rasolomanana H, Raholijaona, Rakotomianina L, Ravoninjatovo A, Randimbison L, Rakotondravelo M, Raveloson A, Rakotoarivony H, Bezaka S, Ranaivoson N, Rafanomezantsoa J-J (2001) Effets des traitements aériens de fipronil et de deltaméthrine en couverture totale sur la chaine alimentaire. In: Zehrer W (ed) Lutte Anti-acridienne à Madagascar, Tome III, Ecotoxicologie. DPV/GTZ, Ministère de l’Agriculture, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 525-572.Google Scholar
  119. Postal JMR, Jeanin PC, Consalvi PJ (1995) Field efficacy of a mechanical pump spray formulation containing 0.25% fipronil in the treatment and control of flea infestations and associated dermatological signs in dogs and cats. Vet Dermatol 6:153–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. PPRI (Plant Protection Research Institute) (1997) Biennial Report 1996/97. PPRI, Pretoria, S. Africa.Google Scholar
  121. Rachadi T, Foucart A (1999) Barrier treatment with fipronil to control desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) hopper bands infesting a large area in Mauritania. Int J Pestic Manage 45:263–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rafanomezana S (2001a) Effet à court terme des acridicides fipronil, decis et confidor sur les termites. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 341-350.Google Scholar
  123. Rafanomezana S (2001b) Impacts du fipronil 4 sur les termites de la région d’Ampoza. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 325-339.Google Scholar
  124. Rafanomezana S, Rafanomezantsoa J-J (2001) Impacts du fipronil et de l’alsystin sur les arthropodes non cibles dans la région d’Ankazoabo. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 209-242.Google Scholar
  125. Rafanomezana S, Rafanomezantsoa J-J, Rakotondramasy H, Raveloson A (2001) Enquêtes sur l’utilisation des termites et des termitières par la population du sud de Madagascar. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 315-323.Google Scholar
  126. Rafanomezantsoa J-J (2001) Impact à court terme de trois acridicides sur les arthropodes. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 373-426.Google Scholar
  127. Rakotondramasy H (2001a) Evaluation comparative des effets à court terme de trois acridicides: Fipronil (Adonis 4), Deltaméthrine (Decis 17,5) et Imidachloprid (Confidor 10) sur les reptiles dans la région d’Ankazoabo. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 365-372.Google Scholar
  128. Rakotondramasy H (2001b) Evaluation comparative des effets à court terme de trois acridicides: Fipronil (Adonis 4), Deltaméthrine (Decis 17,5) et Imidachloprid (Confldor 10) sur les micromammifères dans la région d’Ankazoabo. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 351-363.Google Scholar
  129. Rattan PS, Mukumbareza C (1997) Regent (fipronil) an insecticide for the control of termites in young tea. Quarterly Newsletter, Tea Research Foundation of Central Africa, 128:19–25.Google Scholar
  130. Raveloson A (2001a) Les effets e trois insecticides (Fipronil, Deltaméthrine, Imidacloprid) sur les arthropodes non cibles épigés. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 427-450.Google Scholar
  131. Raveloson A (2001b) Evaluation de l’effet à court et moyen termes du triflumuron et du fipronil sur les insectes volants non cibles: cas des Hyménoptères. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp. 281-298.Google Scholar
  132. Rhône-Poulenc (1995) Atelier International Fipronil/lutte antiacridienne, Lyon, 3–5 May 1995. Unpublished report. Rhône-Poulenc Agrochimie, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  133. Rhône-Poulenc (1996) ‘Fipronil’ world-wide technical bulletin. Rhône-Poulenc Agrochimie, Lyon, France.Google Scholar
  134. Rhône-Poulenc (1997) REGENT®, RHÔNE-POULENC AGRO’s new insecticide, makes its entry on the Indian rice market. Press release, Paris, 17 April 1997. http://www.rhone-poulenc.com/bodyu/nw970031.htm.
  135. Rupes V, Chmela J, Boase CJ, Robinson WH, Rettich F, Rambo GW (1999) Evaluation of experimental fipronil baits for control of Pharaohs ants in the Czech Republic. In: Proceedings, 3rd International Conference on Urban Pests, Prague, Czech Republic, 19–22 July, 1999, pp 624.Google Scholar
  136. Scharf ME, Siegfried BD (1997) Toxicity and neurophysiological effects of fipronil and fipronil sulfone on the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 40:150–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Scherer R (1998) Evaluation d’activités de lutte antiacridienne. Mesure d’aide d’urgence 1998, Madagascar. GTZ, Heuschreckenforschung und Heuschreckenbekämpfung. Projet Lutte Antiacridienne en Afrique 93.2121.7. GTZ, Eschborn, Germany.Google Scholar
  138. Scott JG, Wen ZM (1997) Toxicity of fipronil to susceptible and resistant strains of German cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and houseflies (Diptera: Muscidae). J Econ Entomol 90:1152–1156.Google Scholar
  139. Scott WP, Snodgrass GL, Adams DA (1997) Mortality of tarnished plant bug and boll weevils to Provado and different formulations of fipronil. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA, (chairs) Ottens RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences, USA, Vol 2, Jan. 6–10, 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 987-990.Google Scholar
  140. Seta G, Drzewiecki S, Mrowczynski M, Widerski K, Wachowiak H (1997) [Studies on the use of new insecticides in the control of winter rape pests]. Prog Plant Prot, 37:96–99.Google Scholar
  141. Shaw R, Yang HS, Rowe BK, Randall-Smith H, Deeter B (1997) Summary of research results with fipronil for control of plant bugs on cotton. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA, (chairs) Ottens RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences, USA, Vol 2, Jan. 6–10, 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 1043–1046.Google Scholar
  142. Solokov I (2000) Fipronil versus chlorpyrifos: which is softer on non-target organisms in Siberia? Adv Appl Acridol 2000:17–18.Google Scholar
  143. Song MD (1997) An update on flea control. Vet Med 1997:27–32.Google Scholar
  144. Sparks AN Jr, Norman JW, Spurgeon DW, Raulston JR (1997) Comparative efficacy of fipronil and guthion for boll weevil control. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA (chairs), Ottens RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences USA, Vol 2, Jan. 6–10 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 1040-1043.Google Scholar
  145. Spurgin P (2000) Insecticide and Application Technology Research: 1. Evaluation of fipronil as an insecticide for locust control. APLC web page, Feb. 2000. http://www.affa.gov.au/aplc/aboutresearchfiles/controlresearch.htm.
  146. Stevens MM, Helliwell S, Warren GN (1998) Fipronil seed treatments for the control of chironomid larvae (Diptera: Chironomidae) in aerially-sown rice crops. Field Crop Res 57:195–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Stevens MM, Fox KM, Coombes NE, Lewin LA (1999) Effect of fipronil seed treatments on the germination and early growth of rice. Pestic Sci 55:517–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Szekely I, Pap L, Bertók B (1996) MB-599, a new Synergist in pest control. Brighton Crop Protection Conference: Pests & Diseases—1996. 2:473–480.Google Scholar
  149. Teague TG, Tugwell NP (1997) Insecticide trials with tarnished plant bugs. Spec Rep Agric Exp Sta Univ Arkansas 183:163–166.Google Scholar
  150. Thomlin C (ed) (1994) The Pesticide Manual. Crop Protection Publications/British Crop Protection Council, Farnham, UK.Google Scholar
  151. Tillman PG, Mulrooney JE (1997) Tolerance of natural enemies to selected insecticides applied at ultra low volumes. In: Herzog GA, Hardee DA (chairs), Ottens RJ, Ireland CS, Nelms JV, Ottea JA (eds) Proceedings, Beltwide Cotton Conferences USA, Vol 2, Jan. 6-10, 1997, New Orleans, LA. Cotton Insect Research and Control Conference. N.C.C., Memphis, TN, pp 1312-1313.Google Scholar
  152. Tillman PG, Scott W (1997) Susceptibility of Cotesia marginiventris (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) to field rates of selected cotton insecticides. J Entomol Sci 32:303–310.Google Scholar
  153. Tingle CCD, McWilliam AN (1998) Evaluation of short-term impact of emergency locust control in Madagascar on non-target organisms. Progress report to O.N.E. on results to end June 1998. Unpublished Report, NRI, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  154. Tingle CCD, McWilliam AN (1999) Evaluation of short-term impact on non-target organisms of two pesticides used in emergency locust control in Madagascar. Final Report to DFID. Unpublished report. NRI, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  155. Tingle CCD, McWilliam AN (2001) Evaluation de l’effet a court terme sur les organismes non cibles des traitements en barrières à grande échelle dans la cadre de la lutte antiacridienne d’urgence. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 115-182.Google Scholar
  156. Tingle CCD, Rahamefiarisoa LH (2001) Evaluation de l’effet à court termes du triflumuron et du fipronil sur les insectes volants non cibles: cas des Diptères. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 299-313.Google Scholar
  157. Tingle CCD, Rother JA, Dewhurst CF, Lauer S, King WJ (2001a) Health and environmental effects of fipronil. Briefing Paper AIl. Pesticide Action Network UK, London, UK.Google Scholar
  158. Tingle CCD, McWilliam AN, Zehrer W, Rafanomezana S, Rafanomezantsoa J-J (2001b) Mis en place d’un programme de suivi écotoxicologique de la faune non cible après un traitement antiacridien en barrières à grande échelle dans le cadre de la lutte antiacridienne d’urgence. In: Zehrer W (ed) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar, pp 61-100.Google Scholar
  159. Tran Van Canh, Keli ZJ, Coulibaly A (1998) Control of termites and black ants damaging rubber plantations in Africa. In: Symposium on Natural Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis), Vol 2: Physiology and Exploitation and Crop Protection and Planting Methods Sessions, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 14–15 October 1997. International Rubber Research and Development Board, Brickendonbury, UK, pp 115–121.Google Scholar
  160. USEPA (1996) Fipronil Pesticide fact sheet. EPA 737-F-96-005. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, USA. 7 pp. http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPAPEST/199ay-12/pr-736DIR/Facts/Factsheet.txt.html
  161. USEPA (1997a) United States Environmental Protection Agency, USA, Office of Pesticide Programs, Federal Register Document, 1997, Vol 62, No. 228.Google Scholar
  162. USEPA (1997b) Memorandum. 9/12/97. Tolerance petition for residues of fipronil in or on corn and animal RACs: HED Risk Assessment. USEPA, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  163. USEPA (1998a) Fipronil for use on Rice (Regent®, Icon®) and Pets (Frontline®). HED Risk Assessment. Chemical 129121. Barcodes D242090, D245656, D245627, & D241676. Cases 288765, 031271, 060305, & 061662. Submissions S535772, S541670, S541551, S534929. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, USEPA, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  164. USEPA (1998b) Memorandum: Fipronil-Review of incident reports for three products. DP Barcodes: D241621, D241622, D241623, and D245344. Cases 0124261, 046906, 060305, 014261. Submissions: S534195, S534196, S534198, S541098. USEPA, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  165. USEPA (1999) Memorandum: EFED’s section 3 Registration Eligibility Decision Chapter for fipronil use on rice as a pre-plant broadcast treatment. Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, USEPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  166. USEPA (2000) Pesticides beginning with an “F„. Office of Pesticide Programs. http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/sectionl8/page_f.htm
  167. USEPA (2001) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Volume 20 Part 180—Tolerances and Exemptions from Tolerances for Pesticide Chemicals in Food. http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/get-cfr.cgi?TITLE-40&PART-180&SECTION-517&YEAR-2001&TYPE-TEXT
  168. USEPA (undated) Memorandum. Subject: Fipronil ID#000264-00554: Updated Toxicology Hazard Assessment. Evaluation of an acute neurotoxicity study with fipronil and reevaluation of the developmental neurotoxicity study. USEPA, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  169. Valles SM, Koehler PG, Brenner RJ (1997) Antagonism of fipronil toxicity by piperonyl butoxide and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate in the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J Econ Entomol 90:1254–1258.Google Scholar
  170. van der Valk H (1997) Community structure and dynamics in desert ecosystems: Potential implications for insecticide risk assessment. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 32:11–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. van der Valk H, Diakhaté H, Seck A (1998) The toxicity of locust control insecticides to Pimelia senegalensis and Trachyderma hispida (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). In: Everts JW, Mbaye D, Barry O, Mullie W (eds) Environmental Side-Effects of Locust and Grasshopper Control, Vol 2. LOCUSTOX Project — GCP/SEN/04I/NET. FAO, Dakar, Senegal, pp 72-100.Google Scholar
  172. Warburton H (1994) Report on a visit to assess the socio-economic issues arising from the use of insect growth regulators for locust control in Madagascar. March 1994. Unpublished report. NRI, Chatham, UK.Google Scholar
  173. White GL (1998) Control of the leaf-cutting ants Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), and Atta cephalotes (L), with a bait of citrus meal and fipronil. Int J Pestic Manage 44:115–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. World Bank (1998) Report. Meeting of the World Bank Panel to evaluate the migratory locust situation in Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar, 18–22 May, 1998.Google Scholar
  175. Zehrer W (ed) (2001) La Lutte Antiacridienne à Madagascar. Tome III: Ecotoxicologie. GTZ, Antananarivo, Madagascar.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin C. D. Tingle
    • 1
  • Joachim A. Rother
    • 2
  • Charles F. Dewhurst
    • 3
  • Sasha Lauer
    • 4
  • William J. King
    • 5
  1. 1.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of Greenwich at MedwayChatham Maritime, KentUK
  2. 2.Environmental Microbiologist, Crown Biosystems, Bioscience Innovation BuildingSittingbourne Research CentreSittingbourne, KentUK
  3. 3.The NR Group memberChichester, W. SussexUK
  4. 4.NRI AssociateLichfieldUK
  5. 5.Pesticide Management ConsultantHarthip, Sittingbourne, KentUK

Personalised recommendations