In Chapter 1, we introduced the idea of primary (neurologically based) handicapping conditions, which include learning disabilities and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this chapter, focus is on primary handicapping conditions in speech-language. A comprehensive study of oral language is an essential part of any evaluation of children with learning disabilities, from preschool through adulthood. Since auditory language is the first symbol system that a child acquires, any serious delays usually are noted early in life by family, physicians, and others. Mild to moderate problems, however, may not be detected until the child enters school and is expected to understand verbal instructions and convey ideas in more specific ways. Language competence is critical in school because most instruction in new subject matter such as reading, writing and mathematics is delivered orally. Furthermore, reading and writing development depend upon good underlying vocabulary, syntax, and linguistic awareness. Thus, any academic problem may be a reflection of more basic problems in oral language.
KeywordsStein Shoe Echolalia
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