In 1948 the American physicists, J. Bardeen and W. H. Brattain announced the invention of the transistor1, a new type of amplifying device made from semiconducting crystals. Very few at that time could have foreseen the revolutionary developments that were to follow, developments so important and far-reaching as to change the whole outlook of the science and technology of electronics. The physical principles involved in transistor action2 had been worked out in conjunction with their colleague, W. Shockley; and in recognition of their work the three physicists were awarded jointly the 1956 Nobel Prize for Physics.
KeywordsQuartz Phosphorus Dioxide Mercury Platinum
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