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Lead in Food

  • Irene Kessel
  • John T. O’Connor

Abstract

The amount of lead in our food has decreased drastically in recent years. The levels of lead that an infant or child was exposed to in food in the early 1990s were only about 10% of those seen just 10 years earlier.1

Keywords

Fruit Juice Lead Poisoning Bone Meal Lead Silicate Wine Bottle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Endnotes

  1. 1.
    U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, “Reducing Exposure to Lead from Ceramic Ware,” FDA Backgrounder (undated); Federal Register 58 (21 June 1993): 33865.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Judith E. Foulke, “Lead Threat Lessens, but Mugs Pose Problem,” FDA Consumer 27 (April 1993): 19–23.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Russell Flegal et al., “Lead Contamination in Food,” Food Contamination from Environmental Sources, Jerome O. Nriagu and Mila S. Simmons, eds. (New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1988).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Federal Register 58 (21 June 1993): 33860.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Judith E. Foulke, “Toddler’s Blood Test Leads to Juice Recall,” FDA Consumer (Dec. 1992): 41-42.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    “Two Agencies Look at Lead in Wine,” FDA Consumer (Nov. 1991): 2; “Wine, Getting the Lead Out,” Science News (21 Sept. 1991): 189.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruce R. Appel et al., “Potential Lead Exposures from Lead Crystal Decanters,” American Journal of Public Health 82 (1992): 1671–1673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richard Lansdown and William Yule, Lead Toxicity: History and Environmental Impact (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983): 170.Google Scholar
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    J. Flattery et al., “Lead Poisoning Associated with Use of Traditional Ethnic Remedies—California, 1991–1992,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42 (1993): 521–524.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ron V. Sprinkle, “Leaded Eye Cosmetics: A Cultural Cause of Elevated Lead Levels in Children,” Journal of Family Practice 40 (1995): 358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bernard P. Bourgoin et al., “Lead Content in 70 Brands of Dietary Calcium Supplements,” American Journal of Public Health 83 (1993): 1155–1160. Refer to article for amount of lead in specific calcium supplements.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    “Pewter Baby Cups Recalled,” FDA Consumer 26 (Nov. 1992): 3-4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beatrice Trum Hunter, “Dietary Lead: Problems and Solutions,” Consumers’ Research (May 1992): 21-22.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    These items are considered adulterated and so prohibited if they leach more than 0.5 ppm of lead. Large ceramic bowls may leach up to 1 ppm, small bowls up to 2 ppm, and plates and saucers up to 3 ppm. Federal Register 57 (6 July 1992): 29735.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Federal Register 59 (12 Jan. 1994): 1638.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Federal Register 58 (21 June 1993): 33863.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Federal Register 58 (21 June 1993): 33860.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    These levels are 80 ppb for fruit juice and 250 ppb for other food products. Federal Register 58 (1 April 1993): 17233.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Federal Register 61 (8 Feb. 1996): 4816.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Foulke, “Lead Threat Lessens,” 20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Irene Kessel and John T. O’Connor 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Irene Kessel
  • John T. O’Connor

There are no affiliations available

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