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Murray Gell-Mann and More Particles: Forces within the Nucleus

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Abstract

After Anderson’s great discovery of the positron, or positive electron, by no means did the search for ever more fundamental particles stop. Instead, things got ever more complex. The list of particles continued to swell and some of them soon began to exhibit very peculiar properties which often contradicted known theory.

Keywords

Electromagnetic Force Beta Decay Grand Unify Theory Strong Force Weak Force 
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Endnotes

  1. 1.
    See Laurie Brown and Lillian Hoddeson, “The Birth of Elementary-Particle Physics,” Physics Today, April 1982, for an early discussion of quantum electrodynamics (QED), particularly with respect to Dirac’s work.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Yukawa, “On the Interaction of Elementary Particles,” from Yukawa’s Progress of Theoretical Physics (Kyoto, Tokyo, 1935).Google Scholar
  3. 2a.
    See also H. Yukawa, Proceedings of the Physics and Mathematics Society of Japan, 1935, 17:48.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    See Carl Anderson, Science, 1932, 76:238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 3a.
    Neddermeyer and Anderson, The Physical Review, 1937, 57:884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 4.
    See also Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1978), p. 231, for a good discussion of Millikan’s cosmic ray studies with Anderson.Google Scholar
  7. 5.
    For a useful discussion of SLAC and particle research, see Steven Weinberg, The Discovery of Subatomic Particles (Scientific American Books, New York, 1983).Google Scholar
  8. 6.
    See James S. Trefil, From Atoms to Quarks (Scribner’s, New York, 1980), p. 166, for a good discussion of Rank’s work.Google Scholar
  9. 7.
    First suggested by Pauli at a conference on radioactivity in 1930; see also Laurie M. Brown, “The Idea of the Neutrino,” Physics Today, September 1978.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    Laurie M. Brown, “The Idea of the Neutrino,” Physics Today, September 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    Niels Bohr was virtually a professional skeptic; for his skepticism on positrons, see Daniel J. Kevles, The Physicists (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1978), p. 233.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    See Alice Kimball Smith and Charles Weiner, “The Young Op-penheimer: Letters and Recollections,” Physics Today, April 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    For a discussion of Einstein-Bose statistics, again see Yukawa’s famous paper, “On the Interaction of Elementary Particles,” from Yukawa’s Progress of Theoretical Physics (Kyoto, Tokyo, 1935).Google Scholar

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© Anthony Serafini 1993

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