Russian Robots on the Moon

  • Robert Reeves


After Surveyor 7 completed its mission, U.S. unmanned lunar exploration ended for the next quarter-century. An American presence on the moon did continue for the next five years, but only under the manned Apollo program. The goal of the unmanned explorations had focused increasingly on support of the politically motivated Apollo manned landings. When the manned lunar landing goal was achieved in 1969, further unmanned scientific explorations were canceled by the cost-conscious Nixon administration which was trying to finance the Vietnam War.


Interplanetary Magnetic Field Landing Site Lunar Surface Lunar Soil Lunar Orbit 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Nicholas Daniloff, The Kremlin and the Cosmos (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972), p. 165.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Interview with Alexie Milovanov, Lavochkin Association, conducted at Fort Worth, Texas on June 29, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    “Reds Imply Luna 15 to Stay in Orbit,” Newport News Daily Press, July 17, 1969.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boris Petrov, “The Case for Space Automation,” Pravda, September 24, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    “Dangerous Mission,” Washington Outlook, Aviation Week and Space Technology, October 5, 1970, p. 13.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Charles Sheldon, Soviet Space Programs, 1966–70 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971), p. 204.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    “Empty Victory,” Washington Outlook, Aviation Week and Space Technology, December 14, 1970, p. 15.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    “Off the Shelf,” Washington Outlook, Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 6, 1970, p. 13.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Peter Smolders, Soviets in Space (New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., Inc., 1971), p. 213.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sheldon, p. 202.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    “Luna 18 Crashes in Landing Attempt,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, September 20, 1971, p. 16.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    “Back to the Moon,” Time, January 29, 1973.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sheldon, p. 202.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marty Sabota, “‘Stunning’ Moon Photos to Be Released,” San Antonio Express-News, March 2, 1994, p. 1-D.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jeffrey Lenorovitz, “Clementine to Search for Ice at Lunar Poles,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, April 11, 1994, p. 28.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jeffrey Lenorovitz, “Low-Cost Spacecraft Begins Mapping the Moon,” Aviation Week and Space Technology, March 7, 1994, p. 20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robert Reeves 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Reeves

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations