Ecology and Human Physiology in Ladak

  • S. L. Malik
  • Indera P. Singh

Abstract

Situated at lat. 34°09′ and long. 77°34′, the Ladak Plateau is the most west-wardly region of the Indian subcontinent occupied by the Tibetan people. It is surrounded by China in the northeast and southeast, by Lahaul and Spiti in the south, and by Kashmir in the west. It consists of several snow-covered parallel mountain ranges running southeast to northwest. These ranges and the plateau support very scanty vegetation that is concentrated along the Indus River. This sacred river originates between the ranges of Kabas and Tibet and flows about 370 km before it reaches Leh, the capital of Ladak.

Keywords

Sugar Dust Mercury Respiration Manure 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baker, P. T., 1969, Human adaptation to high altitude, Science 163:1149–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker, P. T., 1971, Adaptation problems in Andean human population, in: Ongoing Evolution of Latin American Populations (F. M. Salzano, ed.), Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  3. Baker, P. T., Frisancho, A. R., and Thomas, R. B., 1966, A priliminary analysis of human growth in the Peruvian Andes, in: Human Adaptability to Environment and Physical Fitness (M. S. Malhotra, ed.), DIPAS, Madras.Google Scholar
  4. Bangham, C. R. M., and Veale, K. E. A., 1976, Ventilatory capacity in Napalese health, J. Physiol. 265;31–32.Google Scholar
  5. Bhattacharya, D. K., 1963, Vital capacity of Jat males of Punjab: A modification of the formula existing for its computation, Ind. J. Med. Res. 51:361–365.Google Scholar
  6. Boyce, A. J., Haight, J. S. J., Rimmer, D. B., and Harrison, G. A., 1974, Respiratory function in Peruvian Quechua Indians, Ann. Hum. Biol. 1:137–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Choidi, H., 1963, Respiratory adaptation to high altitude, in: The Regulation of Human Respiration (D. J. C. Cunningham and B. B. Lloyd, eds.), Blackwell, Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Clegg, E. J., Harrison, G. A., and Baker, P. T., 1970, The impact of high altitude on human populations, Hum. Biol. 42:486–518.Google Scholar
  9. Cotes, J. E., and Ward, M. P., 1966, Ventilatory capacity in normal Bhutanese, J. Physiol. 186:88–89.Google Scholar
  10. Cunningham, A., 1970, Ladak: Physical, Statistical and Historical with Notes on the Surrounding Countries, Sagar Publications, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  11. Ferris, B. F., Jr., and Smith, C. W., 1953, Maximum breathing capacity and vital capacity in female children and adolescents, Pediatrics 12:341–352.Google Scholar
  12. Ferris, B. F., Jr., Whittenberger, J. L., and Gallagher, J. R., 1962, Maximum breathing capacity and vital capacity of male children and adolescents, Pediatrics 9:659–670.Google Scholar
  13. Frisancho, A. R., 1966, Human Growth in High Altitude Peruvian Population. M. S. thesis, Pennsylvania State University (unpublished).Google Scholar
  14. Frisancho, A. R., 1968, Growth, Physique and Pulmonary Functions of a High Altitude Peruvian Quechua Population, Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  15. Frisancho, A. R., 1969, Human growth and pulmonary function of a high altitude Peruvian Quechua population, Hum. Biol. 41:365–379.Google Scholar
  16. Frisancho, A. R., and Baker, P. T., 1970, Altitude and growth: A study of patterns of physical growth of a high altitude Peruvian Quechua Population, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 32:279–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Frisancho, A. R., Velasquez, T., and Sanchez, J., 1973a, Influence of developmental adaptation on lung function at high altitude, Hum. Biol. 45:583–594.Google Scholar
  18. Frisancho, A. R., Martinez, C., Velasquez, T., Sanchez, J., and Monotype, H., 1973b, Influence of developmental adaptation of aerobic capacity at high altitude, J. Appl. Physiol. 34:176–180.Google Scholar
  19. Frisancho, A. R., Borkan, G. A., and Klayman, J., 1975, Pattern of growth of lowland and highland Peruvian Quechua of similar genetic composition, Hum. Biol. 47:233–244.Google Scholar
  20. Garn, S. M., 1961, Human Races, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Ill.Google Scholar
  21. Herra, A. L., and Vergara, D., 1899, La Vie Sur hauts Plateaux, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  22. Hoff, C. J., 1972, Preliminary Observation on Altitudinal Variations in the Physical Growth and Development of Peruvian Quechua, Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University (unpublished).Google Scholar
  23. Huizinga, J., and Glanville, E. V., 1968, Vital capacity and timed vital capacity in the Kurumba from Upper Volta, S. Afr. J. Sci. 64:125–133.Google Scholar
  24. Hurtado, A., 1932, Respiratory adaptation in the Indian natives of the Peruvian Andes, Studies at high altitude, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 17:137–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ICMR, 1972, Growth and Physical Development of Indian Infants and Children ICMR Technical Report No. 18, ICMR, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  26. Jain, S. K., and Gupta, G. K., 1967, Age height and body weight as determinants of ventilatory “norms” in health: Men above fifty years of age, Ind. J. Med. Res. 55:599–619.Google Scholar
  27. Jain, S. K., and Ramiah, T. J., 1968, Lung volumes and mechanisms of breathing in healthy boys 7–14 years old, Ind. J. Chest Dis. 10:63–68.Google Scholar
  28. Jain, S. K., and Ramiah, T. J., 1969, Normal standards of pulmonary function tests for healthy Indian men, 15–40 year old: Comparison of different regression equation, Ind. J. Med. Res. 57:1453–1466.Google Scholar
  29. Lyons, H. A., and Tanner, R. W., 1962, Total lung volume and its subdivisions in children: Normal standards, J. Appl. Physiol. 17:601–604.Google Scholar
  30. Malcolm, L. A., 1970, Growth and development of Bundi children of New Guinea highlands, Hum. Biol. 42:293–328.Google Scholar
  31. Malik, S. L., 1976, Age Changes and Few Biological Responses at High Altitude: A Study among Male Bods of Ladak, Ph.D. thesis, Delhi University (unpublished).Google Scholar
  32. Malik, S. L., 1979, Effect of altitude on physical development: Comparison of highland and lowland Bods, Spectra of Anthropolog. Prog. 2:45–50.Google Scholar
  33. Malik, S. L., and Singh, I. P., 1978, Growth trends among male Bods of Ladak—A high altitude population, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 48:171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Malik, S. L., and Singh, I. P., 1979a, Lung function in highlander Bods of Ladak, Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 51:383–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Malik, S. L., and Singh, I. P., 1979b, Ventilatory capacity among highland Bods: A possible adaptive mechanism at high altitude, Ann. Hum. Biol. 6;471–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miklaschewskaya, N. N., Solovyeva, V. S., and Godina, E. J., 1976, The effect of climatic factors on growth processes in man, in: Growth and Development: Physique (O. G. Eiben, ed.), Akademiai Kiado, Hungary.Google Scholar
  37. Monge, C., 1948, Acclimatization in the Andes: Historical Confirmation of Climatic Aggression in the Development of Andean Man, John Hopkins Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  38. Newman, M. T., 1953, The application of ecological rules applied to the racial anthropology of the aborginals of the New World, Am. Anthropolog. 55:311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Newman, M. T., 1955, Application of man to cold climates, Evolution 9:101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pawson, I. G., 1971, The Effects of Altitudinal Variation on Growth in Ethiopian Populations, M. A. thesis, Pennsylvania State University (unpublished).Google Scholar
  41. Pawson, I. G., 1974, The Growth and Development of High Altitude Children with Special Emphasis on Populations of Tibetan Origin, Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University (unpublished).Google Scholar
  42. Pawson, I. G., 1976, Growth and development in high altitude populations: A review of Ethiopian, Peruvian and Nepalese studies, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. [Biol.], 194:83–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pyzuk, M., and Wolanski, N., 1972, Uklad oddychanla i. kranzenia ulzeici u Roznorodnych Uarunkachi Sorodowiskowych, Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Warsaw.Google Scholar
  44. Rao, M. N., Sengupta, A., Saha, P. N., and Devi, S., 1961, Physiological Norms in Indians: Pulmonary Capacity in Health, pecial Report Series No. 38, ICMR, New Delhi.Google Scholar
  45. Rothammer, F., and Spielmann, R. S., 1972, Anthropometric variation in the Aymara: Genetic, geographic and topographic contributions, Am. J. Hum. Genet. 24:371–380.Google Scholar
  46. Scholander, P. F., 1955, Evolution of climatic adaptation in homeotherm, Evolution 9:15–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Schreider, E., 1951, Anatomical factors of body heat regulation, Nature 167:823–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sherring, C. A., 1906, Western Tibet and the British Borderlands, Edward Arnold, London.Google Scholar
  49. Singh, I. P., and Malik, S. L., 1977, A study of human growth among high altitude female Bods of Ladak with remarks on morphological adaptation, Anthropol. Kozl. 21:63–70.Google Scholar
  50. Walter, H., 1971, Remarks on the environmental adaptation of man, Humangenetik 13:85–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wolanski, N., and Malik, S. L., 1979, Modern environment and future of man, Acta Anthropogenet. 3:157–162.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. L. Malik
    • 1
  • Indera P. Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of DelhiDelhiUSA

Personalised recommendations