Linear-beam tubes are the most versatile devices used for the generation and amplification of energy at microwave frequencies. The usual forms are klystrons and travelling-wave tubes (TWTs). High-power klystrons and coupledcavity TWTs are widely used in radars and communications transmitters. The helix TWT (an intrinsically lower power device) enjoys, thanks to its broadbandwidth characteristics, a tremendous field of applications in electronic countermeasure systems as well as in line-of-sight and satellite-to-ground communication links (uplinks and downlinks).
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