Somatic Embryogenesis in Carrot (Daucus carota)

  • Abraham D. Krikorian
  • David L. Smith


The culture of carrot cells in liquid suspension dates from 1953 and the recognition of their totipotency from 1956 [10]. By 1962 it was feasible to maintain in the laboratory, routinely, liquid cultures, heterogeneous as to their unit size, but in which large numbers of embryos readily developed from suspended cell clusters and single cells [8]. By this time, the role of synergistic combinations of the growth-promoting complex as it occurs in coconut water with auxins such as naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichloro-phenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) had become well-known [11, 23]. Moreover, the advantages to be gained in some otherwise morphogenetically recalcitrant cell cultures, of sequential treatments with different growth-promoting complexes and systems, became appreciated [23]. By these general means it was shown that a number of umbelliferous plants (family Apiaceae) and species or cultivars from other families, could yield cells and somatic embryos which in turn could give rise to whole plants. But when the main sequence of embryogenic development of carrot cells became known [24], it was found that its outcome could be greatly altered by the environmental conditions and the identity and mode of application of the growth and morphogenetic stimuli [11, 23].


Somatic Embryo Somatic Embryogenesis Zygotic Embryo Embryogenic Cell Embryogenic Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ammirato PV (1983) Embryogenesis. In: Evans DA, Sharp WR, Ammirato PV, Yamada Y (eds) Handbook of Plant Cell Culture. Vol I, Techniques for propagation and breeding, pp 82–123. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ammirato, PV (1984) Induction, maintenance, and manipulation of development in embryogenic cell suspension cultures. In: Vasil, IK (ed) Cell Culture and Somatic Cell Genetics of Plants. Vol. I, Laboratory procedures and their applications, pp 139–151. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carman J (1990) Embryogenic cells in plant tissue cultures: Occurrence and behavior. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology 26: 746–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Choi JH, Sung ZR (1989) Induction, commitment, and progression of plant embryogenesis. In: Kung S-d, Arntzen CJ (eds) Plant Biotechnology, pp 141–159. Boston, London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fitter MS, Krikorian AD (1982) Plant Protoplasts. Some guidelines for their preparation and manipulation in culture. San Diego: Behring Diagnostics.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Halperin W (1966) Alternative morphogenetic events in cell suspensions. American Journal of Botany 53: 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Komamine A, Matsumoto M, Tsukahara M, Fujiwara A, Kawahara R, Ito M, Smith J, Nomura K, and Fujimura T (1990) Mechanisms of somatic embryogenesis in cell cultures-Physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology. In: Nijkamp, HJJ, van der Plas, LHW, van Aartrijk, J (eds) Progress in Plant Cellular and Molecular Biology, pp 307–313. Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Pubs.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Krikorian AD (1982) Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured cells. Biological Reviews 57: 151–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Krikorian AD (1988) Plant tissue culture: Perceptions and realities. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences (Plant Science) 98: 425–464.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Krikorian AD (1989) Introduction to: Growth and organized development of cultured cells by Steward, FC, Mapes, MO, Mears, K, Amer. J. Bot. 45: 705–708. 1958. In: Janick, J (ed) Classical Papers in Horticultural Science, pp 40-55. W.H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Krikorian AD, Kelly K, Smith, DL (1987) Hormones in plant tissue culture and propagation. In: Davies PJ (ed) Plant Hormones and their Role in Plant Growth and development, pp. 592–613. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk, Dordrecht, Netherlands.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue. Physiologia Plantarum 15: 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nomura K, Komamine A (1986) Somatic embryogenesis in cultured carrot cells. Development, Growth and Differentiation 28: 511–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scott DR, Walz, AJ, Manis, HC (1966) The effect of Lygus spp. on carrot seed production in Idaho (Hemiptera: Miridae). University of Idaho Research Bulletin no. 69: 1–12.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Singh M Krikorian AD (1980) Chelated iron in culture media. Annals of Botany 46: 807–809.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Singh M, Krikorian AD (1980) White’s standard nutrient solution. Annals of Botany 47: 133–139.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Small E (1978) A numerical taxonomic analysis of the Daucus carota complex. Canadian Journal of Botany 56: 248–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smith DL, Krikorian AD (1988) Production of somatic embryos from carrot tissues in hormone-free medium. Plant Science 58: 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Smith DL, Krikorian AD (1989) Release of somatic embryogenic potential from excised zygotic embryos of carrot and maintenance of proembryonic cultures in hormone-free medium. American Journal of Botany 76: 1832–1843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Smith DL, Krikorian AD (1990) Somatic proembryo production from excised, wounded zygotic carrot embryos on hormone-free medium: evaluation of the effects of pH, ethylene and activated charcoal. Plant Cell Reports 9: 34–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Smith DL, Krikorian AD (1990) Somatic embryogenesis of carrot in hormone-free medium: External pH control over morphogenesis. American Journal of Botany 77: 1634–1647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith DL, Krikorian AD (1990) Low external pH replaces 2,4-D in maintaining and multiplying 2,4-D-initiated embryogenic cells of carrot. Physiologia Plantarum 80: 329–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Steward, FC, Krikorian AD (1971) Plants, Chemicals and Growth. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Steward FC, Israel HW, Mott RL, Wilson, HJ, Krikorian AD (1975) Observations on growth and morphogenesis in cultured cells of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 273: 33–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Street HE (1976) Experimental embryogenesis-The totipotency of cultured plant cells. In: Graham CF, Wareing, PF (eds) The Developmental Biology of Plants and Animals, pp 73–91. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Waris H (1959) Neomorphosis in seed plants induced by amino acids. I. Oenanthe aquatica. Physiologia Plantarum 12: 753–766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abraham D. Krikorian
    • 1
  • David L. Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Cell BiologyState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations