Advertisement

Species and Speciation

Conceptual Issues and Their Relevance for Primate Evolutionary Biology
  • William H. Kimbel
  • Lawrence B. Martin
Part of the Advances in Primatology book series (AIPR)

Abstract

When confronted with the bewildering array of life forms, whether living or extinct, the evolutionary scientist must attempt to create order out of apparent chaos before addressing any other of the myriad questions that stem from a dedication to understanding the organic world. As “the lowest level of genuine discontinuity above the level of the individual [organism]” (Mayr, 1982, p. 251), the species is the basic unit of evolutionary diversity. One would think, therefore, that there is a large degree of unanimity regarding the nature of the species and the role it plays in evolutionary theory. But this is not the case. As amply illustrated by the contributions to this book, there remains a great deal of disagreement on the so-called “species problem.” Questions such as (1) what are species in the context of evolutionary theory, (2) what processes are responsible for species’ origins (and extinctions), and (3) what role do species play in evolution over geological time have occupied the center of debate among evolutionary biologists for decades, and the discussion shows no signs of abatement as we close in on the millennium.

Keywords

Fossil Record Reproductive Isolation Primate Species Hybrid Zone Species Concept 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Avise, J., and Ball, R. 1990. Principle of genealogical concordance in species concepts and biological taxonomy, in: D. Futuyma and J. Antonovics (eds.), Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 7, pp. 45–67 Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  2. Bock, W 1986. Species concepts, speciation, and macroevolution, in: K. Iwartsuki, P. Raven, and W. Bock (eds.), Modem Aspects of Species, pp. 31–57. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  3. Bock, W, and von Wahlen, G. 1965. Adaptation and the form-function complex. Evolution 19: 269–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brockelman, W, and Gittins, S. 1984. Natural hybridization in the Hylobates lar species group: Implications for speciation in gibbons, in: H. Preuschoft, D. Chivers, W. Brockelman, and N. Creel (eds.), The Lesser Apes- Evolutionary and Behavioral Biology, pp. 498–532. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  5. Cope, D., and Lacy, M. 1992. Falsification of a single species hypothesis using the coefficient of variation: A simulation approach. Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 89: 359–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Coyne, J. 1992. Genetics and speciation. Nature 355: 511–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cracraft, J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Curr Ornithol. 1: 159–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Eldredge, N. 1985. Unfinished Synthesis: Biological Hierarchies and Modern Evolutionary Thought. Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  9. Eldredge, N., and Gould, S. 1972. Punctuated equilibria: An alternative to phyletic gradualism, in: T. Schöpf (ed.), Models in Paleobiology, pp. 305–322. Freeman: San Francisco.Google Scholar
  10. Geist, V. 1992. Endangered species and the law. Nature 357: 274–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ghiselin, M. 1974. A radical solution to the species problem. Syst. Zool. 23: 536–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Godfrey, L., and Marks, J. 1991. The nature and origin of primate species. Yrbk. Phys. Anthrop. 34: 39–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Grene, M. 1987. Hierarchies in biology. Am. Sci. 75: 504–510.Google Scholar
  14. Harrison, R. 1990. Hybrid zones: Windows on evolutionary process, in: D. Futuyma and J. An- tonovics (eds.), Oxford Surveys in Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 7, pp. 69–128. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  15. Hennig, W. 1966. Phylogenetic Systematics. University of Illinois Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  16. Hull, D. 1976. Are species really individuals? Syst. Zool. 25: 174–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hull, D. 1978. A matter of individuality. Philos. Sco. 45: 335–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Mayr, E. 1957. Species concepts and definitions, in: E. Mayr (ed.), The Species Problem, pp. 1–22. AAAS Publication No. 50. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  19. Mayr, E. 1982. The Growth of Biological Thought Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  20. Moore, J. 1957. An embryologist’s view of the species problem, in: E. Mayr (ed.), The Species Problem, pp. 325–338. AAAS Publication No. 50. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  21. O’Brien, S., and Mayr, E. 1991 Bureaucratic mischief: Recognizing endangered species and subspecies. Science 251: 1187–1188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Paterson, H. 1985. The recognition concept of species, in: E. S. Vrba (ed.), Species and Speciation, pp. 21–29. Transvaal Museum, Pretoria.Google Scholar
  23. Raubenheimer, D., and Crowe, T. 1987. The recognition species concept: Is it really an alternative? 5. Afr. J. Sci. 83: 550–534.Google Scholar
  24. Rieppel, O. 1986. Species are individuals: A review and critique of the argument, in: M. Hecht, B. Wallace, and G. Prance (eds.), Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 20, pp. 283–317. Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Salthe, S. 1985. Evolving Hierarchical Systems Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  26. Simpson, G. 1961. The Principles of Animal Taxonomy. Columbia University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Somit, A., and Peterson, S. (eds.) 1992. The Dynamics of Evolution: The Punctuated Equilibrium Debate in he Natural and Social Sciences. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Tattersall, I. 1986. Species recognition in human paleontology. J . Hum. Evol. 15: 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Turner, A., and Chamberlain, A. 1989. Speciation, morphological change and the status of African Homo erectus. J Hum Evol. 18: 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wiley, E. 1978. The evolutionary species concept reconsidered. Syst. Zool. 27: 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • William H. Kimbel
    • 1
  • Lawrence B. Martin
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Human OriginsBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Anthropology and Anatomical SciencesState University of New York at Stony BrookStony BrookUSA

Personalised recommendations