In two-dimensional gases, when the mean free paths of the electrons are long compared to sample dimensions, it is clear that the electrons will propagate ballistically until reflected by some sort of a boundary — either the sample edge or some other introduced sharp fluctuation in the potential. In the GaAs/GaAlAs heterojunction systems, it is relatively easy to attain mobilities high enough so that mean free paths are micometers or more. It is also relatively easy at many laboratories to build structures lithographically that are much smaller. It has been demonstrated by many that structures can be made in which the dimensions can be reduced to a one-dimensional quantum wire — wherein the electronic states are quantized perpendicular to the wire (in both directions) and k, the wave vector, is a good quantum number only along the wire (Warren et al., 1986; Kotthaus et al., 1988; Berggren et al., 1986; Smith et al., 1987).
KeywordsMicrowave Coherence GaAs Alan
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