Ballistic Transport in Normal Metals

  • P. Wyder
  • A. G. M. Jansen
  • H. van Kempen
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSB, volume 285)


Using micro-contacts (“point contacts”) between metals, conduction electrons can be injected ballistically into the metal; the relevant energy of these electrons can be tuned by varying the applied voltage. With the injected electrons it is possible to perform spectroscopy inside the metal just as it has usually been done with electrons, neutrons or photons from the outside. The observed deviations from Ohm’s law in the tiny metallic contacts allow an energy-resolved spectroscopy of the interaction of the conduction electrons with elementary excitations (e.g. phonons, magnons, paramagnetic impurities, crystal-field levels, etc.) in a metal. In reasonable pure normal metals, the observed second derivative signal d2V/dI2(V) is directly proportional to Eliashberg’s form of the electron-phonon interaction α2F(eV) with a slight modification due to a transport efficiency function. The point-contact method and its applications will be discussed. Specific experiments will show the usefulness of ballistic point-contacts for other purposes than just spectroscopy: high-frequency rectification with a point contact as a non-linear element, electron-focusing using a double point-contact setup, the study of interfaces (Andreev reflection), localization phenomena in a constriction, magnetoresistance of a point contact.


Point Contact Contact Resistance Normal Metal Ballistic Transport Andreev Reflection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Yu. V. Sharvin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 48, 984 (1965) [Sov. Phys. JETP 21, 655 (1965)].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    I. K. Yanson, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 66, 1035 (1974) [Sov. Phys. JETP 39, 506 (1974)].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. S. Tsoi, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 19, 114 (1974) [JETP Lett. 19, 70 (1974)].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. A. M. Benistant, H. van Kempen and P. Wyder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 817 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. G. M. Jansen, A. P. van Gelder and P. Wyder, J. Phys. C: Solid State 13, 6073 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    I. K. Yanson, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 9, 676 (1983) [Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 9, 343 (1983)];Google Scholar
  7. 6a.
    I. K. Yanson and O. I. Shklyarevskii, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 12, 899 (1986) [Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 12, 509 (1986)].Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    I. O. Kulik, A. N. Omel’yanchuk and R. I. Shekhter, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 3, 1543 (1977) [Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 3, 740 (1977)];Google Scholar
  9. 7a.
    I. O. Kulik and I. K. Yanson, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 4, 1267 (1978)[Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 4, 596 (1978)].Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    A. M. Duif, A. G. M. Jansen and P. Wyder, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1, 3157 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 9.
    K. S. Rails, R. A. Buhrmann and R. C. Tiberio, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2459 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    M. J. G. Lee, J. Caro, D. G. de Groot and R. Griessen, Phys. Rev. B31, 8244 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    A. A. Lysykh, I. K. Yanson, O. I. Shklyarevskii and Y.G. Naidyuk, Solid State Commun. 35, 987 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 12.
    A. I. Akimenko and I. K. Yanson, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 31, 209 (1980) [JETP Lett. 31, 191 (1980)].Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    A. G. M. Jansen, A. P. van Gelder, P. Wyder and S. Strässler, J. Phys. F: Metal Phys. 11, LI5 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 14.
    M. Reiffers, Yu.G. Naidyuk, A. G. M. Jansen, P. Wyder, I. K. Yanson, D. Gignoux and D. Schmitt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1560 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 15.
    R. W. van der Heijden, A. G. M. Jansen, J. H. M. Stoelinga, H. M. Swartjes and P. Wyder, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 245 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    O. P. Balkashin, I. K. Yanson and Yu. A. Pilipenko, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 13, 389 (1987) [Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 13, 222 (1987)].Google Scholar
  19. 17.
    B. I. Verkin, I. K. Yanson, I. O. Kulik, O. I. Shklyarevski, A. A. Lysykh and Yu. G. Naydyuk, Solid State Commun. 30, 215 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 18.
    B. Bussian, I. Frankowski and D. Wohlleben, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1026 (1982);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 18a.
    E. Paulus and G. Voss, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 47–48, 539 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 19.
    I. Frankowski and P. Wachter, Solid State Commun. 41, 577 (1982);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 19a.
    M. Moser, P. Wachter, F. Hulliger and J. R. Etourneau, Solid State Commun. 54, 241 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 20.
    A. A. Lysykh, A. M. Duif, A. G. M. Jansen and P. Wyder, Phys. Rev. B38, 1067 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 21.
    Yu. G. Naidyuk, N. N. Gribov, A. A. Lysykh, I. K. Yanson, N. B. Brandt and V. V. Moshchalkov, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 41, 325 (1985) [JETP Lett. 41, 399 1985)].Google Scholar
  26. 22.
    Yu. V. Sharvin and L. M. Fisher, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 1, 54 (1965) [JETP Lett. 1, 152 (1965)].Google Scholar
  27. 23.
    P. C. van Son, H. van Kempen and P. Wyder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 1567 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 24.
    P. A. M. Benistant, H. van Kempen and P. Wyder, Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 817 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 25.
    H. F. C. Hoevers, P. J. M. van Bentum, L. E. C. van der Leemput, H. van Kempen, A. J. G. Schellingerhout and D. van der Marel, Physica C 152, 105 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 26.
    I. K. Yanson, N. N. Gribov and O. I. Shklyarevskii, Pis’ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 42, 159 (1985) [JETP Lett. 42, 195 (1985)].Google Scholar
  31. 27.
    P. A. Lee and T. V. Ramakrishnan, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 287 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 28.
    N. N. Gribov, P. Samuely, J. A. Kokkedee, A. G. M. Jansen, I. K. Yanson and P. Wyder, Physica B166–167, 917 (1990).Google Scholar
  33. 29.
    H. M. Swartjes, A. P. van Gelder, A. G. M. Jansen and P. Wyder, Phys. Rev. B39, 3086 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 30.
    E. N. Bogachek and R. I. Shekhter, Fiz. Nizk. Temp. 14, 810 (1988) [Sov. J. Low Temp. Phys. 14, 445 (1988)].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Wyder
    • 1
  • A. G. M. Jansen
    • 1
  • H. van Kempen
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für FestkörperforschungHochfeld-MagnetlaborGrenoble CedexFrance
  2. 2.Res. Institute for MaterialsUniv. of Nijmegen ToernooiveldNijmegenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations