Cytochrome P450 in Plant-Insect Interactions: Inductions and Deductions

  • May R. Berenbaum
  • Michael B. Cohen
  • Mary A. Schuler

Abstract

Although it is now known that cytochrome P450 monooxygenases have a number of physiological functions in insects, including hormone and pheromone metabolism, they were first recognized as a general purpose system for metabolizing xenobiotics, particularly synthetic organic insecticides. In the early sixties, a series of experiments revealed that high levels of oxidase activity were associated with resistance to insecticides and that administration of known oxidase inhibitors, such as sesamex or piperonyl butoxide, could reverse that resistance. Subsequently, detoxification via microsomal monooxgenases of such insecticides as propoxur, carbaryl, and aldrin was demonstrated. The fact that insect strains selected for resistance to one class of insecticide often displayed resistance to other groups of insecticides suggested that the microsomal monooxygenase system was broadly substrate-specific (Hodgson, 1985). The microsomal cytochrome P450- dependent mono-oxygenase system was subsequently found to consist of a suite of membrane-bound enzymes that effect a variety of oxidation reactions; the heme protein cytochrome P450 is the terminal oxidase in the series. In general, since oxidation increases the hydrophilicity of a substrate, P450 monooxygenases can act as detoxification enzymes; with reduced lipophilicity, a substrate is at the same time rendered more likely to be excreted and, in the process, less able to cross lipid rich membranes to interfere with biological processes.

Keywords

Pyrimidine Epoxidation Coumarin Phenobarbital Flavone 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahmad, S., Brausten, L., Mullin, C. and Yu, S. 1986. Enzymes involved in the metabolism of plant allelochemical. pp. 73–151. in: “Molecular Aspects of Insect-Plant Interactions.” Brattsten, L. and Ahmad, S., eds. Plenum Press, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander, D.C. 1987. An efficient vector-primer cDNA cloning system. Meth. Enzymol. 154: 41–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berenbaum, M. 1978. Toxicity of a furanocoumarin to armyworms: A case of biosynthetic escape from insect herbivores. Science 201: 532–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berenbaum, M. 1981. Effects of linear furanocoumarins on an adapted specialist insect (Papilio polyxenes). Ecol. Entomol. 6: 345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brattsten, L.B. 1979a. Biochemical defense mechanisms in herbivores against plant allelochemicals. pp. 199–270 in: “Herbivores: Their Interactions with Plant Secondary Metabolites.” Rosenthal, G.A. and Janzen, D.H., eds. Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Brattsten, L.B. 1979b. Ecological significance of mixed-function oxidations. Drug Metab. Rev. 10: 35–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brattsten, L.B., Wilkinson, C.F. and Eisner, T. 1977. Herbivore- plant interactions: Mixed- function oxidases and secondary plant substances. Science 196: 1349–1352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bull, D.L., Ivie, G.W., Beier, R.C., Pryor, N.W. and Oertli, E.H. 1984. Fate of photosensitizing furanocoumarins in tolerant and sensitive insects. J. Chem. Ecol. 10: 893–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bull, D.L., Ivie, G.W., Beier, R.C. and Pryor, N.W. 1986. In vitro metabolism of a linear furanocoumarin (8-methoxypsoralen, xanthotoxin) by mixed-function oxidases of larvae of black swallowtail butterfly and fall armyworm. J. Chem. Ecol. 12: 885–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, M.B., Berenbaum, M.R. and Schuler, M.A. 1989. Induction of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of xanthotoxin in the black swallowtail. J. Chem. Ecol. 15: 2347–2355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ehrlich, P. and Raven, P. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evol. 18: 586–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feyereisen, R., Koener, J.F., Farnsworth, D.E. and Nebert, D.W. 1989. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA encoding a cytochrome P- 450 from an insecticide-resistant strain of the house fly, Musca domestica. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86: 1465–1469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hancock, D.L., 1983. Classification of the Papilionidae: a phylogenetic approach. Smithersia 2: 1–48.Google Scholar
  14. Hodgson, E. 1985. Microsomal mono-oxygenases. pp. 225–321 in: “Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry, and Pharmacology.” vol. II. Kerkut, G.A. and Gilbert, L.I. eds. Pergamon Press, NY.Google Scholar
  15. Ivie, G.W., Bull, D.L., Beier, R.C., Pryor, N.W. and Oertli, E.H. 1983. Metabolic detoxification: Mechanism of insect resistance to plant psoralens. Science 221: 374–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jones, D. and Granett, J. 1982. Feeding site preferences of seven lepidopterous pests of celery. J. Econ. Ent. 75: 449–453.Google Scholar
  17. Krieger, R.I., Feeny, P.O. and Wilkinson, C.F. 1971. Detoxication enzymes in the guts of caterpillars: An evolutionary answer to plant defenses. Science 172: 579–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee, K. 1989. Enzymatic defenses against plant phototoxins in phytophagous insects. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  19. Matsudaira, P. 1987. Sequence from picomole quantities of proteins electroblotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. J. Biol. Chem. 262: 10035–10038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Murray, R.D.M., Mendez, J. and Brown, S.A. 1982. “The Natural Coumarins.” J. Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester.Google Scholar
  21. Neal, J.J. 1987. Ecological aspects of insect detoxification enzymes and their interaction with plant allelochemicals. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.Google Scholar
  22. Nitao, J.K. 1989. Enzymatic adaptation in a specialist herbivore for feeding on furanocoumarin-containing plants. Ecol. 70: 629 – 635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Scott, B.R., Pathak, M.A. and Mohn, G.R. 1976. Molecular and genetic basis of furocoumarin reactions. Mutation Research 39: 29–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Tietz, H.M. 1972. “An Index to the Described Life Histories, Early Stages, and Hosts of the Macrolepidoptera of the Continential United States and Canada.” Allyn Museum of Entomology, Sarasota, Florida.Google Scholar
  25. Yajima, T., Kato, N. and Munakata, K. 1977. Isolation of insect antifeeding principles in Orixa japonica. Agric. Biol. Chem. 41: 1263–1268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Zangerl, A. 1990. Furanocoumarin induction in wild parsnip: Evidence for an adaptive induced defense. Ecology (in press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • May R. Berenbaum
    • 1
  • Michael B. Cohen
    • 1
  • Mary A. Schuler
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of IllinoisUrbanaUSA

Personalised recommendations