Significant Stages of Ear Development in Winter Wheat
Wheat growth and yield simulation models often have an element which traces plant development, generally by taking a few selected development stages and estimating the time which elapses between them. The criteria which are used to select these stages, and thus the phases of development which they demarcate, are considered in this paper. Specific stages may be selected because they have some fundamental importance in the physiology of the plant and may signal a change from one phase of growth to another; for example, the onset of stem elongation, which may affect the partitioning of resources to other organs in the plant. Specifying stages that define the duration of a particular process allows numbers of parts formed to be estimated if a prediction of the rate of the process can also be made; for example, Rahman and Wilson (1978) have analysed numbers of spikelets per ear in terms of rate and duration between specified morphological stages (double ridge and terminal spikelet). It may also be necessary to identify developmental stages when there is a change in the response of development or growth to certain environmental factors; for example, after anthesis, development depends only on temperature and it does not respond to daylength, which affects the preceding phases of the life cycle.
KeywordsMaize Assimilation Bonnet Marquis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Baker, C. K., 1979, The environmental control of development in winter wheat, Ph.D. thesis, University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
- Baker, C. K., Gallagher, J. N., and Monteith, J. L., 1980, Daylength change and leaf appearance in winter wheat, Pl. Cell Environ., 3:285.Google Scholar
- Bonnet, O. T., 1966, Inflorescences of maize, wheat, rye, barley and oats: their initiation and development, University of Illinois College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 721.Google Scholar
- Darwinkel, A., 1978, Patterns of tillering and grain production of winter wheat at a wide range of plant densities, Neth. J. agric. Sci., 26:383.Google Scholar
- Friend, D. J. C., 1966, The effect of light and temperature on the growth of cereals, in: “The Growth of Cereals and Grasses”, F. L. Milthorpe and J. D. Ivins, eds., Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
- Kirby, E. J. M., and Appleyard, M., 1981, Cereal Development Guide, NAC Cereal Unit, Stoneleigh.Google Scholar
- Kirby, E. J. M., Appleyard, M., and Fellowes, G., 1984, Leaf emergence and tillering in barley and wheat, Agronomie, (submitted).Google Scholar
- Kirby, E. J. M., and Jones, H. G., 1976, The relations between the main shoot and tillers in barley plants, J. agric. Sci., Camb., 88:381.Google Scholar
- Nicholls, P. B., and May, L. H., 1963, Studies on the growth of the barley apex. I. Interrelationships between primordium formation, apex length, and spikelet development, Aust. J. Biol. Sci., 16:561.Google Scholar
- Rahman, M. S., and Wilson, J. H., 1977, Determination of spikelet number in wheat. I. Effect of varying photoperiod on ear development, Aust. J. agric. Res., 28:565.Google Scholar
- Williams, R. F., 1975, The shoot apex, leaf growth and crop production, J. Aust. Inst. agric. Sci., 41:18.Google Scholar