Team-Assisted Individualization

Combining Cooperative Learning and Individualized Instruction in Mathematics
  • Robert E. Slavin


The past decade has seen an important and dramatic change in research on cooperative incentive and task structures (see Slavin, 1983a), in which individuals work in small groups and are rewarded based on the group’s performance. Before the early 1970s, this research took place primarily in the social psychological laboratory, or in short-term field experiments in locations set up to resemble the laboratory. The systematic use of instructional methods involving cooperation among students was rarely seen, and when it did occur, the methods used tended to be drawn directly from the laboratory (see, for example, Johnson & Johnson, 1974; Slavin, 1977).


Student Achievement Cooperative Learning Black Student Individualize Instruction Intergroup Relation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Slavin
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Social Organization of SchoolsJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

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