Advertisement

The Internal Dynamics of Cooperative Learning Groups

  • David W. Johnson
  • Roger T. Johnson

Abstract

For the past 10 years, we have been conducting a systematic program of research on the relative impact of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning experiences on such variables as achievement and relationships among students. One major focus of our research program has been to illuminate the internal processes within cooperative learning groups that mediate or moderate the relationship between cooperation and (1) productivity and (2) interpersonal attraction among students.

Keywords

Goal Accomplishment Cooperative Learning High Achievement Goal Structure Interpersonal Attraction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armstrong, B., Johnson, D. W., & Balow, B. Effects of cooperative versus individualistic learning experiences on interpersonal attraction between learning-disabled and normal-progress elementary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1981, 6, 102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cooper, L., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Wilderson, F. The effects of cooperation, competition, and individualization on cross-ethnic, cross-sex, and cross-ability friendships. Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, 111, 243–252.Google Scholar
  3. Deutsch, M. An experimental study of the effects of cooperation and competition upon group process. Human Relations, 1949, 2, 199–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deutsch, M. Cooperation and trust: Some theoretical notes. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1962.Google Scholar
  5. Deutsch, M. A critical review of equity theory: An alternative perspective on the social psychology of justice. International Journal of Group Tensions, 1979, 9, 20–49.Google Scholar
  6. Garibaldi, A. The affective contributions of cooperative and group goal structures. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1979, 71, 788–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gunderson, B., & Johnson, D. W. Building positive attitudes by using cooperative learning groups. Foreign Language Annals, 1980, 13, 39–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Johnson, D. W. Group processes: Influences of student-student interactions on school outcomes. In J. McMillan (Ed.), Social psychology of school learning. New York: Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  9. Johnson, D. W., & Ahlgren, A. Relationship between students’ attitudes about cooperative learning and competition and attitudes toward schooling. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1976, 68, 29–102.Google Scholar
  10. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Instructional structure: Cooperative, competitive, or individualistic. Review of Educational Research, 1974, 44, 213–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Learning together and alone: Cooperation, competition, and individualization. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975. (a)Google Scholar
  12. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Students’ perceptions of and preferences for cooperative and competitive learning experiences. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1975, 42, 989–990. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. Student perceptions of and preferences for cooperative and competitive learning experiences. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976, 42, 989–990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Conflict in the classroom: Controversy and learning. Review of Educational Research, 1979, 49(1), 51–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effects of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on interethnic interaction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981, 73, 454–459. (a)Google Scholar
  16. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. The integration of the handicapped into the regular classroom: Effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1981, 6, 344–353. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning experiences on cross-ethnic interaction and friendships. Journal of Social Psychology, 1982, 118, 47–58. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction on the relationships and performance of handicapped and nonhandicapped students. Journal of Social Psychology, 1982, 118, 257–268. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Social interdependence and perceived academic and personal support in the classroom. Journal of Social Psychology, 1983, 120, 77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Building acceptance of differences between handicapped and nonhandicapped students: The effects of cooperative and individualistic problems. Journal of Social Psychology, 1984, 122, 257–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Mainstreaming hearing-impaired students: The effect of effort in communicating on cooperation. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1984.Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Classroom conflict: Controversy versus debate in learning groups. American Educational Research Journal, in press. (a)Google Scholar
  23. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Cross-ethnic relationships in intergroup cooperation and intergroup competition. Journal of Social Psychology, in press. (b)Google Scholar
  24. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. The effects of intergroup cooperation and intergroup competition on ingroup and outgroup cross-handicap relationships. Journal of Social Psychology, in press. (c)Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, S. The effects of attitude similarity, expectations of goal facilitation on interpersonal attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1982, 8, 197–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Johnson, D. W., & Tjosvold, D. Controversy within a cooperative or competitive context and cognitive perspective taking. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1978, 3, 376–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., Johnson, J., & Anderson, D. The effects of cooperative versus individualized instructions on student prosocial behavior, attitudes toward learning and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1976, 104, 446–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Anderson, D. Relationship between student cooperative, competitive, and individualistic attitudes toward schooling. Journal of Psychology, 1978, 100, 183–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., Pierson, W., & Lyons, V. Controversy versus concurrence-seeking in multi-grade and single-grade learning groups. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1984.Google Scholar
  30. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Skon, L. Student achievement on different types of tasks under cooperative, competitive, and individualistic conditions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1979, 4, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Tauer, M. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on students’ attitudes and achievement. Journal of Psychology, 1979, 102, 191–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Johnson, D. W., Skon, L., & Johnson, R. The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on student achievement on different types of tasks. American Educational Research Journal, 1980, 17, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Johnson, D. W., Maruyama, G., Johnson, R., Nelson, D., & Skon, L. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic goal structures on achievement: A metaanalysis. Psychological Bulletin, 1981, 89, 47–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Anderson, D. Social interdependence and classroom climate. Journal of Psychology, 1983, 114, 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Maruyama, G. Interdependence and interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous and homogeneous individuals: A theoretical formulation and a meta-analysis of the reserch. Review of Educational Research, 1983, 53, 5–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., Tiffany, M., & Zaidman, B. Are low achievers disliked in a cooperative situation? A test of rival theories in a mixed-ethnic situation? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1983, 8, 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., Roy, P., & Zaidman, B. Oral interaction in cooperative learning groups: Speaking, listening, and the nature of statements made by high-, medium-, and low-achieving students. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1984.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Tiffany, M. Structuring academic conflicts between majority and minority students: Hindrance or help to integration. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1984, 9, 61–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson, R. The relationship between cooperation and inquiry in science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1976, 10, 55–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, R., & Johnson, D. W. Type of task and student achievement and attitudes in interpersonal cooperation, competition, and individualization. Journal of Social Psychology, 1979, 108, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson, R., & Johnson, D. W. Building friendships between handicapped and nonhandicapped students: Effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction. American Educational Research Journal, 1981, 18, 415–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnson, R., & Johnson, D.W. Effects of cooperative and competitive learning experiences on interpersonal attraction between handicapped and nonhandicapped students. Journal of Social Psychology, 1982, 116, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Johnson, R., & Johnson, D. W. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic learning experiences on social development. Exceptional Children, 1983, 49, 323–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Johnson, R., Johnson, D. W., & Bryant, B. Cooperation and competition in the classroom. Elementary School Journal, 1973, 74, 172–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnson, R., Ryan, F., & Schroeder, H. Inquiry and the development of positive attitudes. Science Education, 1974, 58, 51–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnson, R., Rynders, J., Johnson, D. W., Schmidt, B., & Haider, S. Producing positive interaction between handicapped and nonhandicapped teenagers through cooperative goal structuring: Implications for mainstreaming. American Educational Research Journal, 1979, 16, 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Johnson, R., Johnson, D. W., DeWeerdt, N., Lyons, V., & Zaidman, B. Integrating severely adaptively handicapped seventh-grade students into constructive relationships with nonhandicapped peers in science class. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 1983, 87, 611–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Johnson, R., Bjorkland, R., & Krotee, M. The effects of cooperative, competitive and individualistic student interaction patterns on the achievement and attitudes of the golf skill of putting. The Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1984, 55(2).Google Scholar
  49. Johnson, R., Johnson, D. W., Scott, L., & Ramolae, B. Effects of single-sex and mixed-sex cooperative interaction on science achievement and attitudes and cross-handicap and cross-sex relationships. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1984.Google Scholar
  50. Johnson, S., & Johnson, D. W. The effects of others’ actions, attitude similarity, and race on attraction towards the other. Human Relations, 1972, 25, 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lewin, K. A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1935.Google Scholar
  52. Lowry, N., & Johnson, D. W. The effects of controversy on students’ motivation and learning. Journal of Social Psychology, 1981, 115, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lyons, V. A study of elaborative cognitive processing as a variable mediating achievement in cooperative learning groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Minnesota, 1982.Google Scholar
  54. Martino, L., & Johnson, D. W. Cooperative and individualistic experiences among disabled and normal children. Journal of Social Psychology, 1979, 107, 177–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Nevin, A., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effects of groups and individual contingencies on academic performance and social relations of special needs students. Journal of Social Psychology, 1982, 116, 41–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Roon, R., Van Pilsum, J., Harris, I., Rosenberg, P., Johnson, R., Liaw, C., & Rosenthal, L. The experimental use of cooperative learning groups in a biochemistry laboratory course for first year medical students. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1983.Google Scholar
  57. Roy, P. Analysis of student conversation in cooperative learning groups. Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Minnesota, 1982.Google Scholar
  58. Rynders, J., Johnson, R., Johnson, D. W., & Schmidt, B. Effects of cooperative goal structuring in productive positive interaction between Down’s Syndrome and nonhandicapped teenagers: Implications for mainstreaming. American Journal of Mental Deficiencies, 1980, 85, 268–273.Google Scholar
  59. Skon, L., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Cooperative peer interaction versus individual competition and individualistic efforts: Effects on the acquisition of cognitive reasoning strategies. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981, 73, 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith, K., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Can conflict be constructive? Controversy versus concurrence seeking in learning groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1981, 73, 651–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smith, K., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effects of cooperative and individualistic instruction on the achievement of handicapped, regular, and gifted students. The Journal of Science Psychology, 1982, 116, 277–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith, K., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effects of controversy on learning in cooperative groups. Journal of Social Psychology, 1984, 122, 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tjosvold, D., Marino, P., & Johnson, D. W. Cooperation and competition and student acceptance of inquiry and didactic teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 1977, 14, 281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tjosvold, D., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. Effect of partner’s effort and ability on liking for partner after failure on a cooperative task. The Journal of Psychology, 1981, 109, 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Warring, D., Johnson, D. W., Maruyama, G., & Johnson, R. The impact of different types of cooperative learning on cross-ethnic and cross-sex relationships. Manuscript submitted for publication, 1984.Google Scholar
  66. Wheeler, R., & Ryan, F. Effects of cooperative and competitive environments on the attitudes and achievement of elementary school students engaged in social studies inquiry activities. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1973, 65, 402–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yager, S., Johnson, R., Johnson, D. W., & Snider, B. The effect of cooperative and individualistic learning experiences on positive and negative cross-handicap relationships. Contemporary Educational Psychology, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • David W. Johnson
    • 1
  • Roger T. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.College of EducationUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations