Cooperative Learning Effects on Ethnic Relations and Achievement in Israeli Junior-High-School Classrooms

  • Shlomo Sharan
  • Peter Kussell
  • Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz
  • Yael Bejarano
  • Shulamit Raviv
  • Yael Sharan


Israel is a country of immigrants whose ethnic ties are roughly divided into two groups: Jews who emmigrated to Israel from the Muslim countries of the Middle East, Asia, and North Africa (referred to as Middle Eastern), and those who came from Europe, the Americas, and South Africa (referred to as Western). The integration of these two major ethnic groups is acknowledged to be one of the central problems confronting Israel’s educational system. The population of the country is roughly equally divided at present between the two groups. Research on various aspects of school desegregation in Israel has been extensively summarized in a recent volume (Amir & Sharan, 1984).


Middle Eastern Cooperative Behavior Cooperative Learning English Teacher Classroom Climate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allport, G. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1954.Google Scholar
  2. Amidon, E., & Hough, J. (Eds.). Interaction analysis: Theory, research and application. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1967.Google Scholar
  3. Amir, Y. The role of intergroup contact in change of prejudice and ethnic relations. In P. Katz (Ed.), Toward the elimination of racism. New York: Pergamon Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  4. Amir, Y., & Sharan, S. (Eds.), School desegregation: Cross-cultural perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984.Google Scholar
  5. Amir, Y., Sharan, S., Bizman, A., Ben-Ari, R., & Rivner, M. Asymmetry, academic status, differentiation and the ethnic perceptions and preferences of Israeli youth. Human Relations, 1978, 31, 99–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amir, Y., Sharan, S., Bizman, A., Rivner, M., & Ben-Ari, R. Attitude change in desegregated Israel high-schools. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1978, 70, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Amir, Y., Sharan, S., & Ben-Ari, R. Why integration? In Y. Amir & S. Sharan (Eds.), School desegregation: Cross-cultural perspectives. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984.Google Scholar
  8. Barnes, D. From communication to curriculum. Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1976.Google Scholar
  9. Barnes, D., Britton, J., & Rosen, H. Language, the learner and the school (rev. ed.). Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1971.Google Scholar
  10. Berman, P. & McLauglin, M. Federal programs supporting educational change, Vol. VIII: Implementing and sustaining innovations. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. Blaney, N., Stephan, C., Rosenfield, D., Aronson, E., & Sikes, J. Interdependence in the classroom: A field study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1977, 69, 121–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Breen, M., & Candlin, C. The essentials of a communicative curriculum in language teaching. Applied Linguistics, 1980, 1, 89–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brookover, W., Beady, C., Flood, P., Schweitzer, J., & Wisenbaker, J. School social systems and student achievement. New York: Praeger, 1979.Google Scholar
  14. Brumfit, C. Problems and principles in English teaching. New York: Pergamon Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  15. Cohen, E., & Roper, S. Modification of interracial interaction disability: An application of status characteristics theory. American Sociological Review, 1972, 37, 643–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen, E., & Sharan, S. Modifying status relations in Israeli youth. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1980, 11, 364–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cooper, L., Johnson, D., Johnson, R., & Wilderson, F. The effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic experiences on interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous peers. The Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, 111, 243–252.Google Scholar
  18. Crain, R., Mahard, R., & Narot, R. Making desegregation work. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger, 1982.Google Scholar
  19. DeVries, D., & Slavin, R. Teams-Games-Tournaments: A research review. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 1978, 12, 28–38.Google Scholar
  20. DeVries, D., Edwards, K., & Slavin, R. Biracial learning teams and race relations in the classroom: Four field experiments using Teams-Games-Tournaments. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1978, 70, 356–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dulay, H., Burt, M., & Krashen, S. Language two. New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  22. Gerard, H., & Miller, N. School desegregation. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hansell, S., & Slavin, R. Cooperative learning and the structure of interracial friendships. Sociology of Education, 1981, 54, 98–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., & Sharan, S. Selfesteem, locus of control and children’s perception of classroom social climate: A developmental perspective. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1979, 4, 154–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Sharan, S., & Steinberg, R. Classroom learning style and cooperative behavior of elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1980, 72, 97–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson, P. Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1968.Google Scholar
  27. Johnson, D. Student-student interaction: The neglected variable in education. Educational Researcher, 1981, 10, 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Johnson, D., & Johnson, R. Learning together and alone. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  29. Johnson, D., Johnson, R., & Maruyama, G. Interdependence and interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous and homogeneous individuals: A theoretical formulation and a meta-analysis of the research. Review of Educational Research, 1983, 53, 5–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Joyce, B., & Showers, B. Teacher training research: Working hypothesis for program design and directions for further study. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Los Angeles, April 1981.Google Scholar
  31. Kagan, S. Cooperation-competition, culture, and structural bias in classrooms. In S. Sharan, P. Hare, C. Webb, & R. Hertz-Lazarowitz (Eds.), Cooperation in education. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  32. Kagan, S., & Madsen, M. Experimental analyses of cooperation and competition of Anglo-American and Mexican children. Developmental Psychology, 1972, 6, 49–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kolb, D., & Fry, R. Towards an applied theory of experiential learning. In C. Cooper (Ed.), Theories of group processes. London: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  34. Krashen, S. Second language acquisition and second language learning. New York: Pergamon Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  35. Littlewood, W. Communicative language teaching: An introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  36. Madsen, M. Development and cross-cultural differences in the cooperative and competitive behavior of young children. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1971, 2, 365–571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Madsen, M., & Shapira, A. Cooperative and competitive behavior of urban Afro-American, Anglo-American, Mexican American and Mexican village children. Developmental Psychology, 1970, 3, 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oller, J. Language tests at school. London, England: Longman Group, 1979.Google Scholar
  39. Pepitone, E. Children in cooperation and competition. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1980.Google Scholar
  40. Ryan, F., & Wheeler, R. The effects of cooperative and competitive background experiences of students on the play of a simulation game. Journal of Educational Research, 1977, 70, 295–299.Google Scholar
  41. St. John, N. School desegregation: Outcomes for children. New York: Wiley, 1975.Google Scholar
  42. Schmuck, R., & Schmuck, P. Group processes in the classroom (4th ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. Brown, 1982.Google Scholar
  43. Schofield, J. Cooperation as social exchange: Resource gaps and reciprocity in academic work. In S. Sharan, P. Hare, C. Webb, & R. Hertz-Lazarowitz (Eds.), Cooperation in education. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  44. Shapira, A. Developmental differences in competitive behavior of kibbutz and city children in Israel. Journal of Social Psychology, 1976, 98, 19–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sharan, S. Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes and ethnic relations. Review of Educational Research, 1980, 50, 241–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sharan, S. Cooperative learning in the classroom: Research in desegregated schools. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984.Google Scholar
  47. Sharan, S., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. A group-investigation method of cooperative learning in the classroom. In S. Sharan, P. Hare, C. Webb, & R. Hertz-Lazarowitz (Eds.), Cooperation in education. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. Sharan, S., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. Classroom social climate, self-esteem and locus of control. In S. Sharan & R. Hertz-Lazarowitz, Changing schools: The small-group teaching project in Israel. Tel Aviv: Ramot, Tel Aviv University, 1981. (in Hebrew)Google Scholar
  49. Sharan, S., & Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. Effects of an instructional change program on teachers’ behavior, attitudes and perceptions. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1982, 18, 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sharan, S., & Sharan, Y. Small-group teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1976.Google Scholar
  51. Sharan, S., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., & Reiner, T. Television for changing teacher behavior. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 1978, 7, 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sharan, S., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., & Ackerman, Z. Academic achievement of elementary school children in small group versus whole class instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 1980, 48, 125–129.Google Scholar
  53. Slavin, R. Student teams and achievement division. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 1978, 12, 39–49. (a)Google Scholar
  54. Slavin, R. Student teams and comparison among equals: Effects on academic performance and student attitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1978, 70, 532–538. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Slavin, R. Cooperative learning. Review of Educational Research, 1980, 50, 315–342. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Slavin, R. Using Student Team Learning. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University, 1980. (b)Google Scholar
  57. Slavin, R. Cooperative learning. New York: Longman, 1983.Google Scholar
  58. Slavin, R., & Madden, N. School practices that improve race relations. American Educational Research Journal, 1979, 16, 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Slavin, R., & Oickle, E. Effects of cooperative learning teams on student achievement and race relations: Treatment by race interactions. Sociology of Education, 1981, 54, 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sommer, R. Classroom ecology. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1967, 3, 489–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stephan, W. School desegregation: An evaluation of predictions made in Brown v. Board of Education. Psychological Bulletin, 1978, 85, 217–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Tajfel, H. Social stereotypes and social groups. In J. Turner & H. Giles (Eds.), Intergroup behavior. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  63. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.). The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/ Cole, 1979.Google Scholar
  64. Thelen, H. Education and the human quest. New York: Harper & Row, 1960.Google Scholar
  65. Walberg, E. Social environment as a mediator of classroom learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1969, 60, 443–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Walberg, H., & Anderson, C. Classroom climate and individual learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1968, 59, 414–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Weigel, R., Wiser, P., & Cook, S. The impact of cooperative learning experiences on cross-ethnic relations and attitudes. Journal of Social Issues, 1975, 31(1), 219–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Widdowson, H. Explorations in applied linguistics. London: Oxford University Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  69. Winitz, H. (Ed.). The comprehension approach to foreign language learning. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House, 1981.Google Scholar
  70. Worchel, S. Cooperation and the reduction of intergroup conflict: Some determining factors. In W. Austin & S. Worchel (Eds.), The social psychology of intergroup relations. Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1979.Google Scholar
  71. Yaakobi, D. & Sharan, S. Teachers’ theories of knowledge, attitudes toward instruction and classroom instructional behavior. In preparation.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shlomo Sharan
    • 1
  • Peter Kussell
    • 2
  • Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitz
    • 5
  • Yael Bejarano
    • 3
  • Shulamit Raviv
    • 4
  • Yael Sharan
    • 2
  1. 1.School of EducationTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  2. 2.Israel Educational Television CenterTel AvivIsrael
  3. 3.Everyman’s UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  4. 4.Wingate Institute for Physical Education and SportNetanyaIsrael
  5. 5.School of EducationHaifa UniversityHaifaIsrael

Personalised recommendations