Advertisement

An Introduction to Cooperative Learning Research

  • Robert E. Slavin

Abstract

Why have we humans been so successful as a species? We are not strong like tigers, big like elephants, protectively colored like lizards, or swift like gazelles. We are intelligent, but an intelligent human alone in the forest would not survive for long. What has really made us such successful animals is our ability to apply our intelligence to cooperating with others to accomplish group goals. From the primitive hunting group to the corporate boardroom, it is those of us who can solve problems while working with others who succeed. In fact, in modern society, cooperation in face-to-face groups is increasingly important. A successful scientist must be able to cooperate effectively with other scientists, with technicians, and with students. An executive must cooperate with other executives, salespersons, suppliers, and superiors. Of course, each of those relationships also has competitive elements, but in all of them, if the participants cannot cooperate to achieve a common goal, all lose out. It is difficult to think of very many adult activities in which the ability to cooperate with others is not important. Human society is composed of overlapping cooperative groups: families, neighborhoods, work groups, political parties, clubs, teams.

Keywords

Student Achievement Cooperative Learning Intergroup Relation Quiz Score Increase Student Achievement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allport, G. The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1954.Google Scholar
  2. Ames, C., Ames, R., & Felker, D. Effects of competitive reward structures and valence of outcome on children’s achievement attributions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1977, 69, 1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, B., Johnson, D. W., & Balow, B. Effects of cooperative vs. individualistic learning experiences on interpersonal attraction between learning-disabled and normal-progress elementary school students. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 1981, 6, 102–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronson, E. The Jigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage, 1978.Google Scholar
  5. Ballard, M., Corman, L., Gottlieb, J., & Kaufman, M. Improving the social status of mainstreamed retarded children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1977, 69, 605–611.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cooper, L., Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Wilderson, F. Effects of cooperative, competitive, and individualistic experiences on interpersonal attraction among heterogeneous peers. Journal of Social Psychology, 1980, 111, 243–252.Google Scholar
  7. Gerard, H. B., & Miller, N. School desegregation: A long-term study. New York: Plenum Press, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gottlieb, J., & Leyser, Y. Friendship between mentally retarded and nonretarded children. In S. Asher & J. Gottman (Eds.), The development of children’s friendships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  9. Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Sharan, S., & Steinberg, R. Classroom learning styles and cooperative behavior of elementary school children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1980, 72, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Janke, R. The Teams-Games-Tournament (TGT) method and the behavioral adjustment and academic achievement of emotionally impaired adolescents. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Educational Research Association, Toronto, 1977.Google Scholar
  11. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. Instructional goal structure: Cooperative, competitive, or individualistic. Review of Educational Research, 1974, 44, 213–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. Learning together and alone. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1975.Google Scholar
  13. Kukla, A. Foundations of an attributional theory of performance. Psychological Review, 1972, 79, 454–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lucker, G. W., Rosenfield, D., Sikes, J., & Aronson, E. Performance in the interdependent classroom: A field study. American Educational Research Journal, 1976, 13, 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Madden, N. A., & Slavin, R. E. Cooperative learning and social acceptance of main-streamed academically handicapped students. Journal of Special Education, 1983, 17, 171–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sharan, S. Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations. Review of Educational Research, 1980, 50, 241–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sharan, S., & Sharan, Y. Small-group teaching. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Educational Technology Publications, 1976.Google Scholar
  18. Sharan, S., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., & Ackerman, Z. Academic achievement of elementary school children in small-group versus whole class instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 1980, 48, 125–129.Google Scholar
  19. Slavin, R. E. Classroom reward structure: An analytic and practical review. Review of Educational Research, 1977, 47 (4), 633–650. (a)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Slavin, R. E. A student team approach to teaching adolescents with special emotional and behavioral needs. Psychology in the Schools, 1977, 14 (1), 77–84. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Slavin, R. E. Effects of biracial learning teams on cross-racial friendships. Journal of Educational Psychology, 1979, 71, 381–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Slavin, R. E. Using student team learning (rev. ed.). Baltimore, Md.: Center for Social Organization of Schools, Johns Hopkins University, 1980.Google Scholar
  23. Slavin, R. E. Cooperative learning. New York: Longman, 1983. (a)Google Scholar
  24. Slavin, R. E. When does cooperative learning increase student achievement? Psychological Bulletin, 1983, 94, 429–445. (b)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Slavin, R. E., & Hansell, S. Cooperative learning and intergroup relations: Contact theory in the classroom. In J. Epstein & N. Karweit (Eds.), Friends in school. New York: Academic Press, 1983.Google Scholar
  26. Slavin, R. E., & Oickle, E. Effects of cooperative learning teams on student achievement and race relations: Treatment by race interactions. Sociology of Education, 1981, 54, 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wheeler, R. Predisposition toward cooperation and competition: Cooperative and competitive classroom effects. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Ziegler, S. The effectiveness of cooperative learning teams for increasing cross-ethnic friendship: Additional evidence. Human Organization, 1981, 40, 264–268.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Slavin
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Social Organization of SchoolsJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations