Advertisement

Substance Abuse and Psychopathology

Sociocultural Factors
  • Joseph Westermeyer
Part of the Applied Clinical Psychology book series (ACPH)

Abstract

Comparing the psychopathology of substance abuse across cultural boundaries involves certain problems of definition and research methodology. The definitions of substance abuse and psychopathology vary both within as well as across cultural boundaries. Both of these concepts—substance abuse and psychopathology—are not all-or-none phenomena, like cancer or pregnancy. Rather, they tend to vary over a spectrum, more like hypertension or depression, from mild to severe cases. Both substance abuse and psychopathology also overlap with normal behavior and socially acceptable substance use, moral, ethical, and religious considerations, social learning and deviance, and law, so that the problems of definition within a culture become even greater with cross-cultural comparisons (MacAndrew & Edgerton, 1969; Westermeyer, 1976a). The definition of a sociocultural group is also problematic. Culture involves such characteristics as language, religion, political organization, social class, technology, aesthetics, symbol, role, and other behavioral concerns. Any one element of culture (say, the Moslem religion, or use of the horse for transportation, or polygamy) occurs among cultures that may differ widely in other respects. The concept of culture (a learned entity) is often interwoven in the lay person’s thinking with notions of race (an inherited entity).

Keywords

Substance Abuse Psychoactive Substance Blood Alcohol Level Delirium Tremens Cultural Boundary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albaugh, B. J., & Anderson, P. O. Peyote in the treatment of alcoholism among American Indians. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1974, 131, 1247–1250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacon, S. D. Studies of drinking in Jewish culture: 1. General introduction. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1951, 12, 444–450.Google Scholar
  3. Bailey, W. Primary drug addiction. Medical Opinion and Review, 1967, 3, 82–91.Google Scholar
  4. Barnett, M. L. Association in the Cantonese of New York City: An anthropological study. In O. Diethelm (Ed.), Etiology of chronic alcoholism. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas, 1955.Google Scholar
  5. Beaubrun, M. H. Treatment of alcoholism in Trinidad and Tobago, 1956–65. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1967, 113, 643–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, D. S. & Trethowan, W. H. Amphetamine addiction and disturbed sexuality. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1961, 4, 74–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bergman, R. L. Navaho peyote use: Its apparent safety. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1971, 128, 695–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Biegel, A., Hunter, E. J., Tamerin, J. S., Chapin, E. H., & Lowery, M. J. Planning for the development of comprehensive community alcoholism services: I. The prevalence survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1974, 131, 112–116.Google Scholar
  9. Bonfiglio, G., Falli, S. & Pacini, A. Alcoholism in Italy: An outline highlighting some special features. British Journal of Addiction, 1977, 72, 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bunzel, R. Role of alcoholism in two Central American cultures. Psychiatry, 1940, 3, 361–387.Google Scholar
  11. Burton-Bradley, B. G. Some implications of betel chewing. Medical Journal of Australia, 1977, 2, 744–746.Google Scholar
  12. Cahalan, D., Cisin, I. H., & Crossley, H. M. American drinking practices: A national study of drinking behavior and attitudes. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1969.Google Scholar
  13. Carstairs, G. M. Daru and bhang: Cultural factors in the choice of intoxicant. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1954, 15, 220–237.Google Scholar
  14. Chegwidden, M., & Flaherty, B. J. Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal alcoholics in an alcohol withdrawal unit. Medical Journal of Australia, 1977, 1, 299–703.Google Scholar
  15. Chapra, G. S., & Smith, J. W. Psychotic reactions following cannabis use in East Indians. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 30, 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cockerham, W. C., Forslund, M. A., & Roboin, R. M. Drug use among White and American Indian high school youth. International Journal of Addictions, 1976, 11, 209–220.Google Scholar
  17. Connell, K. H. Illicit distillation: An Irish peasant industry. Historical Studies of Ireland, 1961, 3, 58–91.Google Scholar
  18. Crawford, R. J. M. Treatment success in alcoholism. New Zealand Medical Journal, 1976, 84, 93–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. DeLeon, G., & Wexler, H. K. Heroin addiction: Its relation to sexual behavior and sexual experience. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 1973, 81, 36–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deutsch, A. Observations of a sidewalk ashram. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1975, 32, 166–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. DuToit, B. M. Drugs, rituals and altered states of consciousness. Rotterdam: Balkema, 1977.Google Scholar
  22. Eastwell, H. D. Petrol-inhalation in Aboriginal towns. Medical Journal of Australia, 1979, 2, 221–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Edwards, G., Kyle, E., & Nicholls, P. Alcoholics admitted to four hospitals in England: I. Social class and the interaction of alcoholics with the treatment system. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1974, 35, 499–522.Google Scholar
  24. Favazza, A. R., & Martin, P. Chemotherapy of delerium tremens: A survey of physicians’ preferences. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1974, 131, 1031–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ferguson, F. N. A treatment program for Navaho alcoholics: Results after four years. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1970, 31, 898–919.Google Scholar
  26. Fernandez, F. A. The state of alcoholism in Spain covering its epidemiological and aetiological aspects. British Journal of Addiction, 1976, 71, 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finestone, H. Cats, kicks, and color. Social Problems, 1957, 5, 3–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Freed, E. X. Alcoholism and manic depressive disorders: Some perspectives. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1970, 31, 62–89.Google Scholar
  29. Furst, P. T. (Ed.). Flesh of the gods: The ritual use of hallucinogens. New York: Praeger, 1972.Google Scholar
  30. Furst, P. T., & Coe, M. D. Ritual enemas. Natural History, 1977, 86, 88–91.Google Scholar
  31. Gerrein, J. R., Rosenberg, C. M., & Manohar, V. Disulfiram maintenance in outpatient treatment of alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 798–802.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Getahun, A., & Krikorias, A. D. Chat: Coffee’s rival from Harar, Ethiopia. Economic Botany, 1973, 27, 353–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Glad, D. D. Attitudes and experiences of American-Jewish and American-Irish male youth as related to differences in adult rates of inebriety. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol 1947, 8, 406–472.Google Scholar
  34. Goddard, D., deGoddard, S. N., & Whitehead, P. C. Social factors associated with coca use in the Andean region. International Journal of Addictions, 1969, 4, 577–590.Google Scholar
  35. Goldfried, M. R. Prediction of improvement in an alcoholism outpatient clinic. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1969, 30, 129–139.Google Scholar
  36. Goodwin, D. W., Crane, J. B., & Guze, S. R. Alcoholic “blackouts”: Review and clinical study of 100 alcoholics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 126, 191–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Greden, J. The tea controversy in colonial America. Journal of the American Medical Association 1976, 236, 63–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gumede, M. V. The treatment of African alcoholics: A review of the first 400 cases seen at Kwasimama Clinic. South African Medical Journal, 1972, 46, 430–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hanna, J. M. Coca leaf in Southern Peru: Some biosocial aspects. American Anthropologist, 1976, 76, 281–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hartocollis, P. Alcoholism in contemporary Greece. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1966, 27, 721–727.Google Scholar
  41. Hes, J. P. Drinking in a Yemenite rural settlement in Israel. British Journal of Addiction, 1970, 65, 293–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hoffman, H. County characteristics and admission to state hospital for treatment of alcoholism and psychiatric disorder. Psychological Reports, 1974, 35, 1275–1277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hoffman, H., & Noem, A. A. Adjustment of Chippewa Indian alcoholics to a predominantly White treatment program. Psychological Reports, 1975, 37, 1284–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jilek, W. G. “Brainwashing” as a therapeutic technique in contemporary Canadian Indian spirit dancing: A case in theory building. In J. Westermeyer (Ed.), Anthropology and mental health. The Hague: Mouton, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. Jilek, W. G. Indian healing: Shamanistic ceremonialism in the pacific northwest today. Surrey, Canada: Hancock House, 1982.Google Scholar
  46. Kane, G. Inner city alcoholism: An ecological and cross cultural study. New York: Human Sciences Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  47. Karayannis, A. D., & Kelepouris, M. B. Impressions of the drinking habits and alcohol problem in modern Greece. British Journal of Addiction, 1967, 62, 71–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kaufman, A. Gasoline sniffing among children in a Pueblo Indian village. Pediatrics, 1975, 51, 1060–1063.Google Scholar
  49. Kearny, M. Drunkenness and religious conversion in a Mexican village. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1970, 31, 248–249.Google Scholar
  50. Kelleher, M. J. Alcohol and affective disorder in Irish mental hospital admissions. Journal of the Irish Medical Association, 1976, 69, 140–143.Google Scholar
  51. Keyes, C. F. Towards a new formulation of the concept of ethnic group. Ethnicity, 1976, 3, 202–312.Google Scholar
  52. King, L. J., Murphy, G. E., Robbins, L. N., & Darvish, H. Alcohol abuse: A crucial factor in the social problems of Negro men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1969, 125, 1682–1690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Klepfisz, A. & Ray, J. Homicide and LSD. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1973, 223, 429–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Knupfer, G., & Room, R. Drinking patterns and attitudes of Irish, Jewish and White Protestant men. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1967, 28, 676–699.Google Scholar
  55. Kosa, J., Antonovsky, A., & Zola, I. K. Poverty and health. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  56. Kunitz, S. J., Levy, J. E., Odoroff, C. L., & Bollinger, J. The epidemiology of cirrhosis in two southwestern Indian tribes. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1971, 32, 706–720.Google Scholar
  57. Kuttner, R., & Lorincz, A. Alcoholism and addiction in urbanized Soiux Indians. Mental Hygiene, 1967, 51, 530–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. LaBarre, W. The peyote cult. Hamden, Conn.: The Shoe String Press, 1964.Google Scholar
  59. Leighton, A. H. A comparative study of psychiatric disorder in Nigeria and rural North America. In S. C. Plog & R. B. Edgerton (Eds.), Changing perspectives in mental illness. New York: Holt Rinehart Winston, 1969.Google Scholar
  60. Lowe, G. D., & Alston, J. P. An analysis of racial differences in services to alcoholics in a southern clinic. Hospital Community Psychiatry, 1973, 24, 547–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lowe, G. D., & Hodges, H. E. Race and the treatment of alcoholism in a southern state. Social Problems, 1972, 20, 240–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lowinger, P. The solution to narcotic addiction in the People’s Republic of China. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1977, 4, 165–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MacAndrew, C., & Edgerton, R. B. Drunken comportment. Chicago: Aldine, 1969.Google Scholar
  64. Mellsop, G. W. The effect of distance in determining hospital admission rates. Medical Journal of Australia, 1969, 2, 814–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller, J. S., Sensenig, J., Stocker, R. B., & Campbell, R. Value patterns of drug addicts as a function of race and sex. International Journal of Addiction, 1973, 8, 589–598.Google Scholar
  66. Moorehead, N. C. Amphetamine consumption in Northern Ireland. Journal of the Irish Medical Association, 1968, 61, 80–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Morrison, J. R. The family histories of manic-depressive patients with and without alcoholism. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1975, 160, 227–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Muller, J. J., & Brunner-Orne, M. Social alienation as a factor in the acceptance of outpatient psychiatric treatment by the alcoholic. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1967, 23, 517–518.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Musto, D. The American disease. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  70. Negrete, J. C. Cultural influences on social performance of alcoholics: A comparative study. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1973, 34, 905–916.Google Scholar
  71. Noyes, R., Clancy, J., & Crowe, R. The familial prevalence of anxiety neurosis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1978, 35, 1057–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Opler, M. Fact and fancy in Ute peyotism. American Anthropologist, 1942, 44, 151–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Paine, H.J. Attitudes and patterns of alcohol use among Mexican Americans: Implications for service delivery. Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1977, 38, 544–553.Google Scholar
  74. Paredes, A. Social control of drinking among the Aztec Indians of Meso-America. Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1975, 36, 1139–1153.Google Scholar
  75. Park, P., & Whitehead, P. C. Developmental sequence and dimensions of alcoholism. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1973, 34, 887–904.Google Scholar
  76. Parry, H. J. Use of psychotropic drugs by U.S. adults. Public Health Reports, 1968, 83, 799–810.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pattison, E. M. Social system psychotherapy. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1973, 27, 396–409.Google Scholar
  78. Pattison, E. M. Clinical social systems interventions. Psychiatry Digest, 1977, 38, 25–33.Google Scholar
  79. Pattison, E. M., Coe, R., & Rhodes, R. J. Evaluation of alcoholism treatment: A comparison of three facilities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1969, 20, 478–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Pitts, F. N., & Winokur, G. Affective disorder: VIII. Alcoholism and affective disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1966, 4, 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rimmer, J., Pitts, F. N., & Reich, T. Alcoholism: II. Sex, socioeconomic status and race in two hospitalized samples. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol 1971, 32, 942–952.Google Scholar
  82. Roberts, B., & Meyers, J. Religion, national origin, immigration, and mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1954, 110, 759–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Rosenblatt, S., Gross, M., & Chartoff, S. Marital status and multiple psychiatric admissions for alcoholism. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1969, 30, 445–447.Google Scholar
  84. Rosenbloom, J. R. Notes on Jewish addicts. Psychological Reports, 1959, 5, 769–882.Google Scholar
  85. Rubin, V. (Ed.). Cannabis and culture. The Hague: Mouton, 1975.Google Scholar
  86. Sargent, M. J. Changes in Japanese drinking patterns. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1967, 28, 709–722.Google Scholar
  87. Savard, R. J. Effects of disulfiram therapy on relationships within the Navaho drinking group. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1968, 29, 909–916.Google Scholar
  88. Shore, J., Kinzie, J. D., & Hampson, J. L., Pattison, E. M. Psychiatric epidemiology in an Indian village. Psychiatry, 1973, 36, 70–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Singer, K. The choice of intoxicant among the Chinese. British Journal of Addiction, 1974, 69, 257–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Smith, W. R. Sacrifice among the Semites. In W. A. Lessa, & E. Z. Vogt (Eds.), Reader in comparative religion, New York: Harper & Row, 1965.Google Scholar
  91. Speck, R. V., & Attneave, C. L. Family networks, New York: Pantheon, 1973.Google Scholar
  92. Stull, D. D. Victims of modernization: Accident rates and Papago Indian adjustment. Human Disorganization, 1972, 31, 227–240.Google Scholar
  93. Suffet, F., & Brotman, R. Employment and social disability among opium addicts. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1976, 3, 387–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Suwaki, H. A follow-up study of alcoholic patients. Psychiatria and Neurologica Japonica, 1975, 77, 89–106.Google Scholar
  95. Swed, J. F. Gossip, drinking and social control: Consensus and communication in a Newfoundland parish. Ethnology, 1966, 5, 434–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Taylor, M., & Abrams, R. Manic states: A genetic study of early and late onset of affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1973, 28, 656–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tomsovic, M. Binge and continuous drinkers. Quarterly Journal Studies of Alcohol, 1974, 35, 558–564.Google Scholar
  98. Vitols, M. M. Culture patterns of drinking in Negro and White alcoholics. Diseases of the Nervous System, 1968, 29, 391–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Walsh, B. M., & Walsh, D. Validity of indices of alcoholism: A comment from the Irish experience. British Journal of Preventive Social Medicine, 1973, 27, 18–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wanberg, K. W., & Jones, E. Initial contact and admission of persons requesting treatment for alcohol problems. British Journal of Addiction, 1973, 68, 281–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang, R. P. A study of alcoholism in Chinatown, International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1968, 14, 260–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Westermeyer, J. Use of alcohol and opium by the Meo of Laos. American Journal of Psychiatry 1971, 127, 1010–1023.Google Scholar
  103. Westermeyer, J. Options regarding alcohol use among the Chippewa. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1972, 42, 398–403. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Westermeyer, J. Chippewa and majority alcoholism in the Twin Cities: A comparison. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1972, 155, 322–327. (b)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Westermeyer, J. Folk treatments for opium addiction in Laos. British Journal of Addiction, 1973, 68, 345–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Westermeyer, J. The pro-heroin effects of anti-opium laws in Asia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1974, 33, 1135–1139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Westermeyer, J. Use of a social indicator system to assess alcoholism among Indian people in Minnesota. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1976, 3, 447–456. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Westermeyer, J. Models for chemical dependency. Primer on chemical dependency. Baltimore, Md.: Williams and Wilkins, 1976. (b)Google Scholar
  109. Westermeyer, J. Narcotic addiction in two Asian cultures: A comparison and analysis. Drug Alcohol Dependence, 1977, 2, 273–285. (a)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Westermeyer, J. Cross-racial foster home placement among Native American psychiatric patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 1977, 69, 231–236 (b)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Westermeyer, J. The ravages of Indian families in crisis. In S. Unger (Ed.), The destruction of Indian families. New York: Association of American Indian Affairs, 1977. (c)Google Scholar
  112. Westermeyer, J. Medical and nonmedical treatment programs for opium addicts: A comparison in Asia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1979, 167, 205–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Westermeyer, J. A comparison of three case finding methods for opiate addicts. A study among the Hmong in Laos. International Journal of Addictions, 1981, 16, 173–183. (a)Google Scholar
  114. Westermeyer, J. Influence of opium availability on addiction rates in Laos. American Journal of Epidemiology, 1981, 109, 550–562. (b)Google Scholar
  115. Westermeyer, J. Poppies, pipes and people. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  116. Westermeyer, J., & Bourne, P. Treatment outcome and the role of the community in narcotic addiction. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1978, 166, 51–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Westermeyer, J. & Brantner, J. Violent death and alcohol use among the Chippewa in Minnesota. Minnesota Medicine, 1972, 55, 749–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Westermeyer, J., & Lang, G. Ethnic differences in use of alcoholism facilities. International Journal of Addictions, 1975, 10, 513–520.Google Scholar
  119. Westermeyer, J., & Peake, E. A ten year follow up of alcoholic Native Americans in Minnesota. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1983, 140, 189–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Westermeyer, J. & Walzer, V. Drug usage: An alternative to religion? Disorders of the Nervous System, 1975, 36, 492–495.Google Scholar
  121. Winokur, G., & Clayton, P. J. Family history studies: II. Sex difference and alcoholism in primary affective illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1967, 113, 973–979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Winokur, G., Cadoret, R., & Dorzab, J. Depressive disease: A genetic study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1971, 24, 135–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Zimberg, S. Sociopsychiatric perspectives on Jewish alcohol abuse: Implications for the prevention of alcoholism. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 1977, 4, 571–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Westermeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity HospitalsMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations